Thursday, January 31, 2013

A Peek at American Indians in Children's Fiction Published from 1955-1965

Nancy Larrick's article, The All White World of Children's Book, was published in 1965. I wondered what I might find if I did a search in the Children's Literature Comprehensive Database, using "Indian" as the search term and limiting the search for fiction published from 1955 to 1965. What, I wondered, were her options for books about American Indians? She was, for those who don't know, looking particularly at depictions of African Americans and was very troubled by what she found. Hence the title of her article "all white."

I ran the search and got 337 titles. I am pasting the results below. As you scroll through the list, you'll see duplicates and you'll see books that obviously don't belong on the list (for example, The Elephant that Galumphed).  

Some observations:

There aren't any authors on the list that I recognize as being Native.

I see that James Fenimore Cooper is on it several times. I'm thinking we can likely credit him with being responsible for a wide range of stereotyping. Good Indians, bad ones, ones who disappear into the mists of time...

Looks like there are several stories of whites who befriend Indians, and, stories of whites who are captured by Indians...

And how 'bout that Bread and Butter Indian by Anne Colver? Interesting title, don't you agree? Wondering what that one is about, I did a quick look-see at Google Books, learned that the illustrations are by Garth Williams! Here's the cover:



And here's the summary of the book:
A little girl named Barbara befriends a hungry Indian, offering him the bread and butter. Later she is kidnaped by a strange Indian. The story describes how the "bread-and-butter" Indian comes to her rescue.
What do you think? Is that Indian on the cover the hungry one? Or the strange one!

Some books on the list make me shudder because they are over-the-top in how they present Native characters (borrowing Rudine Sims Bishop's words about early books about African Americans) as objects of ridicule. Let's take a look at a few of them.

Check out Syd Hoff's Little Chief, the lonely Indian boy with an upside-down feather who finds friends among a wagon load of white kids:



Little Chief was/is an early reader. I don't think its still being published. Thank goodness for that, but believe it or not, Benchley's Red Fox and his Canoe, illustrated by Arnold Lobel, is still being marketed and used as an early reader. Here's an illustration from Red Fox and his Canoe:




Another one still in publication is Good Hunting, Little Indian by Peggy Parrish. But wait! The title is now Good Hunting, Blue Sky! I'll have to see if I can find the older copy so I can compare text and illustrations. For now, here's the covers. The original publication was in 1962, illustrated by Leonard Weisgard. The one with a new title has new illustrations, by James Watts.




Here's a page from inside Good Hunting, Blue Sky:



I'll wrap this up for now and do more analytical work with the list. One thing I'll probably do for a more closely aligned comparison, is limit the search to the specific years of Larrick's study. She looked at books published in 1962, 1963, and 1964.

Before I close, though, I'm going to suggest that no child in your classroom or library gains anything useful by reading Little Chief or Good Hunting, Blue Sky.  Please consider setting them aside.

Sources cited:

Bishop, Rudine Sims. (2012). "Reflections on the Development of African American Children's Literature," Journal of Children's Literature, 38(2), pp. 5-13.

Larrick, Nancy. "The All White World of Children's Books," Saturday Review, September 11, 1965, pp. 63-65+
________________________________________________


CLCD Search

Use your browser's save and print functions to save or print this report.
Use the Back button to return to your search results.Search was for: The word Indian (All Fields).
Singular and plural forms were searched.
Search restricted to books published between 1955 and 1965.
Only works of fiction were retrieved.

AUTHORTITLEYEARPUBLISHERISBNANNOTATIONS
Harrington, M. R.The Indians of New Jersey; Dickon among the Lenapes,1963Rutgers University PressFirst ed. published in 1938 under title: Dickon among the Lenape Indians.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe deerslayer : or, The first war-path1962Collier Books
Stoutenburg, Adrien.The mud ponies : based on a Pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Kendall, Lace.The mud ponies : based on a pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Ward, Nanda Weedon.The elephant that ga-lumphed,1959Ariel Books.After a series of misadventures a noisy baby Indian elephant learns to walk quietly. Grades 1-3.;
Adams, AudreyKarankawa boy.1965Naylor Co.
Adams, Audrey.Karankawa boy.1965Naylor
Allen, T. D.Tall as great standing rock.1963Westminster Press
Allen, Terry.Tall as great standing rock1963Westminster
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571956ScribnerWhile guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James Fenimore.The deerslayer, or, The first warpath1963New American Library
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1957Washington Square Press
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1963E. M. Hale
Annixter, Jane.Windigo1963Holiday House
Armer, Laura (Adams)Waterless mountain1963D. McKay Co.
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959David McKay
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959McKay
Arnold, Elliott.White Falcon1958Knopf
Arntson, Herbert E.Two guns in old Oregon1964Watts, F.
Whipple, Mary AnneThe first Californians1962Shinozaki ShorinTitle on cover: The first Californian.;
Overholser, Wayne D.The Meeker Massacre,1964Cowles0402141016 ; 9780402141013Two boys, one Indian and one white, become involved in the growing conflict between an inflexible Indian agent and a Ute tribe.;
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-death1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-Death.1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse1962Harper & Row0005091829 ; 9780005091821
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper0060203412 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203412A young Indian boy, too young to join the older boys in part of the New Year celebration, celebrates his own way with his family.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 2; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 430; 0430; 00 01 02; 020; 002;
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper
Baker, BettyWalk the world's rim.1965Harper & Row0060203811 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203818Bibliog; As they journey to Mexico, Chakoh, a young Indian boy, and Esteban, a Spanish Negro slave, become friends and teach each other their ways;
Baker, Betty.Walk the world's rim1965Harper & Row0064400263 ; 9780064400268Bibliography: p. [169];
Balch, GlennLittle Hawk and the free horses.1957Crowell
Balch, GlennSpotted horse.1961Crowell
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Ball, ZacharyJoe Panther1961E. M. HaleIn an endeavor to earn money for school, an industrious Seminole becomes a deck hand on a tourist boat and accidently is involved in a smuggling ring.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bealer, Alex W.Picture-skin story1957Holiday
Beatty, PatriciaIndian canoe-maker1960Caxton Printers
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beebe, B. F.Coyote, come home.1963D. McKay Co.A coyote, orphaned as a pup, is rescued and befriended by an old Apache seeking companionship, and provides the aged Indian with loyalty and affection which protects them both.;
Beebe, Burdetta Faye.Chestnut cub1963McKay
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe / (paper)1964Harper & Row0064440753 ; 9780064440752A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Lower Grade; Book Level 2.2; Accelerated Reader Points 0.5; Accelerated Vocabulary, Recorded Voice Quizzes; 00 01 02 03; 022; 000; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 3; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; 00 01 02; 030; 002;
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe1964Harper & Row0060204761 ; 9780060204761A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforeseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe1964Scholastic Book ServicesA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Berry, Erick.Valiant captive ...1962Chilton Co.
Berry, ErickValiant captive; a story of Margaret Eames, captured in 1676 by the Indians from the New Settlement, which later became Framingham, Massachusetts1963Chilton
Booker, Jim.Trail to Oklahoma1959Broadman Press
Borland, Hal GlenWhen the legends die. (paper)1963Lippincott0553113380 ; 9780553113389
Borland, Hal Glen.When the legends die1963Lippincott039700303X: ; 9780397003037
Borland, Hal, GlenWhen the legends die1963Lippincott0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1963Bantam Books
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963Lippincott
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963LippincottAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0553226428 (pbk.) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780553226423"A Bantam Starfire book."; An orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0812416945 (Cover Craft) ; 0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 0881030570 (Econoclad) ; 9780812416947 ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1965Bantam BooksAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Bowers, Gwendolyn.Journey for Jemima.1960Walck, H.Z.
Breedlove, Caroline H.Billy Black Lamb1958U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs"Developed in the Workshop in Navajo Education, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Arizona, May 26-June 6, 1958.";
Brick, John.Captive of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Eagle of Niagara; the story of David Harper and his Indian captivity.1955Doubleday
Brick, John.Tomahawk trail.1962Duell
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud : the Navajo boy1957Viking
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, MaryDancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, Mary.Hah-Nee of the Cliff Dwellers [by] Mary and Conrad Buff.1956Houghton Mifflin
Bulla, Clyde Robert.Indian Hill1963Crowell
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteLittle Wind1963Lyons & Carnahan
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteMorning Star,1963Lyons & Carnahan
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carse, RobertFriends of the wolf; a novel.1961Putnam
Chandler, Edna Walker.Charley Brave.1962A. Whitman
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Beckley-Cardy
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo Horse1961Nelson
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo kill1959Nelson
Christie, Caroline.Silver Heels : a story of Blackfeet Indians at Glacier National Park1958Winston
Clark, Ann (Nolan).Little Indian basket maker1957Melmont Pubs.
Clark, Ann NolanLittle Indian pottery1955Melmont
Clark, Ann Nolan.Medicine man's daughter1963Farrar, Straus
Clark, Electa.Osceola, young Seminole Indian.1965Bobbs-MerrillBibliography: p. 198.;
Clymer, EleanorChipmunk in the forest1965Atheneum Pubs.
Coatsworth, Elizabeth,Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poem/1960Macmillan,
Coatsworth, Elizabeth.Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poems1960Macmillan
Colver, Anne.Bread-and-butter Indian1964Holt
Conrader, Constance.Blue wampum.1958Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Cooper, James Feinmore.The last of the Mohicans1964Parents' Magazine
Culp, John H.The bright feathers.1965Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Nevin, Evelyn C.The river spirit and the mountain demons1965Van Nostrand
Davis, Russell G.Chief Joseph, war chief of the Nez Percâe1962McGraw-Hill
De Leeuw, CateuaFear in the forest1960T. NelsonA young orphan boy, whose father was killed by marauding Indians, manages to overcome his morbid fear of the forest when he joins a pack-horse train which travels through the dense forests of Ohio. ;
Dick, Trella Lamson.Bridger's boy1965Follett
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog1962DLM Teaching ResourcesShort tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog,1962Garrard Pub. Co.Short tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Stories from Alaska1961DLM Teaching ResourcesFolk tales representative of the northernmost state of the United States, from its two native peoples, the Indians and the Eskimos.;
Downey, Fairfax DavisGeneral Crook: Indian fighter.1957Westminster Press
DuBois, Theodora.Tiger burning bright.1964Ariel Bks.
Dwight, Allan.Guns at Quebec.1962Macmillan
Simms, William GilmoreThe Yemassee; a romance of Carolina.1964Twayne Publishers
Edmonds, Walter Dumaux.Wilderness clearing1963DoddIn a wilderness clearing in Western New York State when Indian attack threatened and the British attack was expected, sixteen year old Dick Mount proved to Maggie Gordon that he could meet peril.;
Emmons, Della Gould.Leschi of the Nisquallies.1965T. S. Denison
Wood, KerryThe great chief, Maskepetoon : warrior of the Crees1959Canadiana Co. Ltd.
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Fall, ThomasEdge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fall, Thomas.Edge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fernald, Helen Clark.The shadow of the Crooked Tree.1965McKay
Fiedler, ArkadyOrinoko.1961Iskry
Firethunder, Billy.Mother Meadowlark and Brother Snake : an Indian legend1963Holt
Fisher, Clay.Valley of the Bear : a novel of the North Plains Sioux1964Houghton
Foltz, Mary Jane.Awani1964Morrow
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Friskey, Margaret RichardsIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Children'sLOCATED IN PICTURE BOOK SECTION;
Friskey, MargaretIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Childrens Press0516035010 ; 0590424297 (Scholastic : pbk.) ; 9780516035017 ; 9780590424295
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Gage, Wilson.Secret of the Indian mound1958World Pub.
Garst, ShannonJames Bowie and his famous knife.1955J. MessnerA biography of a famous Indian fighter and reputed inventor of the defensive Bowie knife, from his childhood on the Louisiana bayou to his death defending the Alamo.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonRed eagle1959Hasting House
Garst, Shannon.Red Eagle1959Hastings House
Gendron, Val.Behind the Zuni masks1958Longmans
George, Jean Craighead.La tierra que habla / (paper)1959Ediciones, Alfaguara084410728X ; 9780844107288
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles. --1960Houghton Mifflin0395077354 : ; 9780395077351
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles.1960Houghton Mifflin
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage1960Houghton
Gipson, FredSavage Sam1962Harper & Row PublishersThe son of Old Yeller helps his owners escape from the Apaches in East Texas during the 1870's;
Gipson, Fred.Savage Sam.1963Pocket Books
Grant, BrucePancho : a dog of the plains1958World Pub
Gringhuis, Dirk.Young voyageur1955McGraw
Haines, Francis.Red Eagle and the Absaroka.1960Caxton Printers
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Harris, Christie.West with the White Chiefs1965Atheneum Pubs
Hayes, John F.Buckskin colonist1960Copp Clark
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann069830067X ; 9780698300675A fictional account of the first Indian tribes to hear and accept Christianity and of the great fires they lit to celebrate Easter.;
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann.
Hays, Wilma PitchfordEaster fires1959Coward-McCann
Hazletine, Alice IsabelRed man, white man; legends, tales and true accounts of the American Indians,1957Lothrop, Lee & Shepard
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heinzman, George.Only the earth and the mountains, a novel of the Cheyenne Nationa. --1964Macmillan
Henderson, Le GrandHow baseball began in Brooklyn1958AbingdonA humorous story giving one version "of how baseball was started. It all happened when Pieter Denbooms and his nine brothers met up with nine Canarsie Indians." McClurg. Book News.;
Henty, G. A.With Wolfe in Canada.1961WalkerWhen young James Walsham leaves England unexpectedly in 1755 and finds himself in America fighting in the French and Indian War, he discovers that he must still contend with the treachery of his old rival.;
Hill, MonicaRin Tin Tin and the lost Indian1956Simon and Schuster
Hoff, Syd.Little Chief1961Harper0004292669 ; 9780004292663An Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoff, SydLittle Chief,1961HarperAn Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoffine, Lyla.Jennie's Mandan bowl1960McKay
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man.1962Melmont Publishers
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man1962Melmont Pubs.
Howells, Anne MolloyCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo. The villagers, a novel.1964Southern Illinois University Press
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo1960Editorial Losada
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Saurel, Louis.Le Hardouin chez les Hurons1960âEditions FleurusPour enfants.;
Jackson, Helen HuntRamona, a story.1959Printed for the members of the Limited Editions Club at the Plantin Press
James, Harry ClebourneHopi Indian butterfly dance1959Melmont Pubs.
Karney, Beulah.The listening one.1962Day
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia.1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Thomas Y. CrowellCaptured by Comanches at fifteen, a sensitive Spaniard learns to accept their way of life and becomes a leader among them.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother.1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1962E. M. HaleAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kubaésta, VojtéechThe Day of the bison hunt.1962Bancroft & Co.Caption title.; Ill. signed: V. Kubasta.; Lower cover is a double-page which opens into a pop-up color illustration of an Indian village with tepees, a totem, and men in ceremonial costumes.;
La Farge, OliverLaughing Boy1957Houghton Mifflin00812416031 (Covercraft) ; 9780081241608
Lampman, Evelyn (Sibley)Navaho sister1956Doubleday
Lane, Neola Tracy.Secret of the silver spoons.1963Bobbs-MerrillPaul tries to establish his grandmother's true identity by locating the silver spoons she remembers hiding when she was a little girl.;
Lauritzen, Elizabeth M.Shush'ma,1964Caxton PrintersBibliography: p. 188.; The life and habits of a bear reflect her sensitivity to the loss of peace and harmony on the land that is home for her and the Navajo. Based on documented information.;
Hoffmann, EleanorThe charmstone1964McNally and LoftinShuku, son of Chief Islay of Helo, fights the plots of his wicked stepmother, Ojai, and her equally wicked son, Mogi.;
Leckie, RobertDanger at Mormon Crossing1959Simon and SchusterWhile on a camping and hunting trip in the Idaho mountains, Sandy Steele and his friends become involved in a mystery concerning their Indian guide.;
Lenski, LoisLittle Sioux girl,1958Lippincott
Lomask, Milton.Cross among the tomahawks1961Douleday
Longstreet, Stephen.War in the golden weather1965Doubleday
James, Harry ClebourneA day in Oraibi, a Hopi Indian village1959Melmont Pubs.
Stinetorf, Louise A.A charm for Paco's mother1965Day
James, Harry ClebourneA day with Honau, a Hopi Indian boy.1957Melmont Publishers
MacLeod, Robert.The medicine bull.1963Day
Marriott, Alice Lee.The black stone knife. Illustrated by Harvey Weiss.1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie : Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie, Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie: Kiowa captive1965McKay
McGaw, Jessie Brewer.Little Elk hunts buffalo : as Little Elk tells it in Indian picture writing1961T. Nelson
McGiffin, LeePony soldier.1961Dutton
McNamee, James.My Uncle Joe1963Viking
Molloy, Anne Stearns BakerCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Montgomery, Rutherford GeorgeThe capture of West Wind. --1962Duell, Sloan and Pearce
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded Books1556904673 ; 9781556904677Unabridged.; Narrated by Christina Moore; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, Scott.Island of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded BooksUnabridged.; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Dell
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin0395069629 ; 9780395069622Records the courage and self-reliance of an Indian girl who lived alone for eighteen years on an isolated island off the California coast when her tribe emigrated and she was left behind.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 12; Lexile Measure 1000; 1000; 06 07 08; 060; 012;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
Nicholson, John D.The white buffalo,1965Platt & Munk
Rhoads, Dorothy.The corn grows ripe1956VikingTigre, a twelve-year-old Mayan boy living in a modern-day village in Yucatâan, must learn to be a man when his father is injured.;
Conrad, JosephThe nigger of the "Narcissus"1965Printed by the Ward Ritchie Press for the members of the Limited Editions ClubLimited ed. of 1,500 copies, signed by the artist.; Issued in slipcase.; Newman & Wiche. Great and good books,; 372; Limited Editions Club. Bibliography of the fine books published by the Limited Editions Club, 1929-1985,; no. 372;
Allsopp, Joy.The tale of Teddy the toucan : a story for children1960Govt. Information Services"This story is one of a series of stories based on some of the legends of the Amerindian tribes of British Guiana.";
Parish, Peggy.Good hunting, Little Indian1962Young Scott Bks.
Patrick, Pearl HaleyO'po of the Omaha. Illustrated by Dan Jacobson.1957Caxton Printers
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Bks.
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Books
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Rainbow, Elizabeth.Concha and the silver star1965Duell
Ramâirez, Pablo.Wa O'Ka,1961Bobbs-MerrillA young Indian brave accomplishes three seemingly impossible tasks to win the chief's daughter for his bride.;
Ranney, Agnes V.Flash of Phantom Canyon.1963Criterion Bks
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of Tejas.1965New York Graphic Society Pubs.
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of the Tejas.1965New York Graphic Societ Pubs.
Reilly, Robert T.Massacre at Ash Hollow1960Bruce Pub. Co.
Ressler, Theodore Whitson.Treasury of American Indian tales1957Association
Richter, Conrad.The light in the forest.1963Bantam Books
Roberts, Helen M.Mission tales,1963Pacific Books
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1961Doubleday
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1963Fawcett Crest/Ballantine,0449213838 (pbk.) ; 9780449213834Saga of French and Indian war heroics in which Major Robert Rogers is the leader of the Rogers' Rangers.; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1010; 1010;
Robinson, Barbara.Across from Indian Shore1962Lothrop
Robinson, Barbara.Trace through the forest.1965Lothrop
Rowland, Florence Wightman.Pasquala of Santa Ynez Mission1961Walck, H.Z.
Davis, Russell.The Choctaw code1961Whittlesey House
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1961Scribner0553213296 (Bantam : pbk. : 1981) ; 0808519735 (Econoclad) ; 9780808519737While guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe Pathfinder1964Airmont Publishing Co., Inc.
Nelson, May.The Redbirds are flying1963Criterion Bks.
Steele, William O.The Year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Steele, William Owen.The year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Capron, Louis.The red war pole1963Bobbs
Tavo, Gus.The buffalo are running1960Knopf
Lauritzen, Jonreed.The legend of Billy Bluesage1961Little, Brown
Sandoz, Mari.The Story Catcher1963Westminster Press
Oberreich, Robert.The blood red belt1961Doubleday
Jones, Weyman.The talking leaf1965Dial Press
Clark, Margaret Goff.The mystery of the buried Indian mask1962Watts, F.
Surany, Anico.The golden frong1963Putnam
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hastings House
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hstings House
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Schultz, James WillardWith the Indians in the Rockies.1960Houghton MifflinThe adventures of Thomas Fox and Pitamakan, a Blackfoot Indian boy.;
Scott, PaulEliza and the Indian war pony,1961Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage1964Van Nostrand
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage.1964Van Nostrand
Shannon, Terry.Tyee's totem pole1955Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows.1963A. Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows1963WhitmanWakapoo, a Chumash Indian boy, finds the secret of courage when his peace loving people are attacked on their island home off the coast of Southern California.;
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala1958McClelland and Stewart0771081243 : ; 9780771081248
Simmons, Dawn Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Snedden, Genevra SissonDocas, Indian of Santa Clara.1958HeathBibliography: p. 187-189.; Through the eyes of Docas and his playmates one sees the coming of the white man to California and the establishment of one of its famous chain of missions.;
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Speare, Elizabeth George.Calico Captive1957Houghton MifflinDuring the French and Indian War, young Miriam is captured by Indians and taken to Montreal;
Steele, William O.Flaming arrows1957Harcourt, BraceAn Indian attack on a fort in the Tennessee wilderness makes young Chad Rabun realize that it is wrong to condemn one person for the misdeed of another. ;
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg : distributed by Holt
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg: distributed by Holt
Steffan, Jack.Mountain of fire : a novel.1959Day
Stevenson, Augusta.George Custer, boy of action.1963Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the great Indian fighter who died in the controversial Battle of Little Big Horn.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Strachan, Margaret Pitcairn.Cabins with window boxes1964I. Washburn
Steele, William O.The year of the bloody sevens.1963Harcourt, Brace & World
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571957World
Haig-Brown, Roderick LangmereThe whale people.1963Morrow
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Surany, Anico.The golden frog : illus. by Leonard Everett Fisher.1963Putnam
Tilghman, Zoe Agnes StrattonMaiom, the Cheyenne girl;1956Harlow Pub. Corp.
Tomerlin, John.Prisoner of the Iroquois.1965Dutton
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Medalla Newbery.; Tâitulo original: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Editorial noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084"Tâitulo original: Island of the blue dolphins"--t.p. verso.; Stranded on a beautiful isolated island off the coast of California, a young 19th century Indian girl spends 18 years, not only surviving through her courage and self-reliance, but also finding happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
Underhill, Ruth M.Antelope Singer1961Coward-McCann
Baker, Betty.The shaman's last raid1963Harper & Row
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Van Riper, GuernseyJim Thorpe, Indian athlete.1956Bobbs-Merrill
Vance, Marguerite.Esther Wheelwright, Indian captive.1964Dutton
Vestal, StanleyHappy hunting grounds.1963Lyons and Carnahan
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Webb, NancyMakema of the rain forest,1964Prentice-HallBibliographical references included in "Acknowledgments" (p. [3]);
Welch, Ronald C.Mohawk Valley.1958Criterion Books
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Criterion Bks.
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Oxford University Press0192710788 : ; 9780192710789
Wheeler, ArvilleWhite Squaw : the true story of Jennie Wiley.1958HeathA fictionalized account of the life of Jennie Sellards Wiley, who spent a year as an Indian captive in Kentucky and eventually escaped and returned to her husband in Virginia.;
Wilcox, Eleanor Reindollar.Cornhusk doll1956Dodd
Wilson, Charles Morrow.Crown Point : the destiny road1965McKay
Wilson, Hazel (Hutchins)His Indian brother1955E. M. HaleWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Hazel HutchinsHis Indian brother1955Houghton MifflinWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Holly.Snowbound in Hidden Valley1957Messner
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958FollettThe author: p189.; The great hunter, Gabe Stoner, asked eleven year old Whit Martin to go hunting with him. When he and Gabe ran into a party of Indians, Gabe was wounded and he and Whit were captured by the Indians and taken across the Ohio into Shawnee country. Whit and Gabe escaped from their captors and young Whit managed to survive and to help save the wounded hunter. (Publisher);
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958Follett
Worcester, Donald EmmetLone Hunter and the wild horses1959Walck, H.Z.
Worthylake, Mary M.Children of the seed gatherers.1964Melmont Publishers
Leiser, Harry W.The lost canyon of the Navajos1960Criterion Books
Lampman, Evelyn Sibley.The shy stegosaurus of Indian Springs1962Junior Literary guild : Doubleday
Ziner, Feenie.Dark pilgrim : the story of Squanto.1965Chilton Co.



Sunday, January 27, 2013

GIRL MEETS BOY, edited by Kelly Milner Halls

In the closing pages of Girl Meets Boy: Because There Are Two Sides to Every Story, we learn that Joseph Bruchac wrote "Falling Down to See the Moon" and that after reading his story, Cynthia Leitich Smith wrote "Mooning Over Broken Stars."

Joe and Cyn are two of my favorite writers. I recognize the places they write about, and as a Native kid/teen who grew up at Nambe Pueblo, I recognize the characters they developed for their stories in Girl Meets Boy. I know/knew guys like Bobby Wildcat and girls like Nancy Whitepath. They were my classmates when I was in school at Pojoaque (a public school that serves four different pueblos).

And they were my students when I taught Native kids in New Mexico and Oklahoma. Nancy Whitepath is a basketball player. When I taught at Santa Fe Indian School, my husband and I went to a lot of basketball games, cheering for our students. SFIS has won many state championships (source: Santa Fe New Mexican newspaper):



In the stories they wrote for Girl Meets Boy, we aren't told what tribe either character belongs to. Most of the time, the omission of that detail would be a serious flaw. Tribal identity is one of the things I look for when evaluating a story. But, because Joe and Cyn are who they are, I didn't need that detail. I was with them right away. I want to spend time thinking about what that means...

For now, I'm just going to recommend that you get Girl Meets Boy (published in 2012 by Chronicle Books).


Saturday, January 26, 2013

Playing Indian - Vintage Valentine's Day Cards

Over at BuzzFeed, Leonora Epstein posted 15 Unbelievably Racist Valentine's Day Cards. I'm sharing two of them in this post. Before I do that, though, let's take a look at the subtitle for her post. She writes "This collection of V-Day cards circa 1900 to 1930 or so will make you wish Valentine's Day never existed." With that subtitle, she suggests that times are different. I think she's not paying attention to mascots like the ones for the Washington Redskins or the Cleveland Indians. She must not know about the Gwen Stefani video either.

Let's take a look at two of the cards:


Problems:
"Ugh ugh" - I'd love to know who it was that first put down "ugh ugh" as words or speech of Native people!

The headdress itself - One of the common stereotypical ways that a headdress is drawn.

The geometric trim around the heart - I guess this could be traced to textiles Native artists weave on looms. But don't artists from other groups also use looms in creating their woven items?

Wondering about his "give me" line. What do you think about that?

And or course, he is playing Indian. The artist didn't intend you to think the boy is actually Native. That's different (mostly) from the other Valentine's Day cards in the BuzzFeed article...


Here's the second one:

Problems:
"How" - Another utterance someone attributed as the way that Indians say hello. You remember it from Disney's Peter Pan?

The headdress - Another of the common ways that a headdress is drawn...

Given her skin tone, we can speculate that the artist meant her to actually be Native, but that's not likely. Like the boy in the card above, she's most likely playing Indian, too.



If you want to see more, check out the ones Adrienne K. has been posting each year at Native Appropriations. As far as I know, makers of the Valentine's day cards no longer use these stereotypes. I wish authors and illustrators of children's and young adult literature would stop, too!

Friday, January 25, 2013

Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity

In 1964, Jeff Brown introduced readers to a character named Flat Stanley:



Flat Stanley's name is actually Stanley Lambchop, but a bulletin board fell on him, turning him from a three-dimensional boy into a flat one. Much beloved, Flat Stanley evolved into a very popular project through which schoolchildren would make a Flat Stanley and mail it to friends and family in far off places.

A huge success, it also evolved into a series of early readers. Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity is one of those readers.



In it, Flat Stanley and his family go to Mount Rushmore. While there, they meet a tour guide's daughter. Her name is Calamity Jasper:



The interesting thing about Calamity Jasper is what she says about herself on page 48:



See? She is "part Lakota Sioux." In addition to knowing "useful things" about plants and hunting (can you say STEREOTYPE?), she knows how to send smoke signals (come on, say it again: STEREOTYPE). Course, because Stanley is FLAT, they use him as the blanket to send those smoke signals:



The stereotypes are bad, but there's more.

Look again at page 48 when Calamity tells us she's part Lakota Sioux. See the words "Gold Rush" in the previous sentence? Calamity Jasper is out looking for gold in a gold mine. A gold mine located in the Black Hills, and she is determined to get some of that gold for herself...

Let's consider what the Lakota Nation has on its website about the Black Hills:
In 1874 George Armstrong Custer led the U.S. Army Black Hills Expedition, which set out on July 2 from Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory, with orders to travel to the previously uncharted Black Hills of South Dakota. Its mission was to look for suitable locations for a fort, find a route to the southwest, and to investigate the potential for gold mining. His discovery of gold was made public and miners began migrating there illegally.

"Custer's florid descriptions of the mineral and timber resources of the Black Hills, and the land's suitability for grazing and cultivation ... received wide circulation, and had the effect of creating an intense popular demand for the 'opening' of the Hills for settlement. "Initially the U.S. military tried to turn away trespassing miners and settlers. Eventually President Grant, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of War, "decided that the military should make no further resistance to the occupation of the Black Hills by miners."These orders were to be enforced "quietly", and the President's decision was to remain "confidential."

As more settlers and gold miners invaded the Black Hills, the Government determined it had to acquire the land from the Sioux, and appointed a commission to negotiate the purchase. The negotiations failed, as the Sioux resisted giving up what they considered sacred land. The U.S. resorted to military force. They declared the Sioux Indians "hostile" for failing to obey an order to return from an off-reservation hunting expedition by a specific date, but in the dead of winter, overland travel was impossible.

The consequent military expedition to remove the Sioux from the Black Hills included an attack on a major encampment of several bands on the Little Bighorn River. Led by General Custer, the attack ended in the overwhelming victory of chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse over the 7th Cavalry Regiment, a conflict often called Custer's Last Stand.

In 1876 the U.S. Congress decided to open up the Black Hills to development and break up the Great Sioux Reservation. In 1877, it passed an act to make 7.7 million acres (31,000 km2) of the Black Hills available for sale to homesteaders and private interests. In 1889 Congress divided the remaining area of Great Sioux Reservation into five separate reservations and defined the boundaries of each in its Act of March 2, 1889, 25 Stat. 888.

With that history in mind, I think portraying a Lakota character as a gold miner is problematic.  

At the end of the book, there's a section called "What You Need to Know to Be a Black Hills Gold Miner." I'm guessing this information is what led the reviewer for School Library Journal to call the book "educational":
Native Americans have lived in the Black Hills for more than 9000 years. Some Lakota believe the Black Hills are the sacred center of the world.

The Black Hills Gold Rush began in 1874, when Colonel Custer led a thousand men into the western part of South Dakota to investigate reports that the area contained gold. That's the same Custer who later had his Last Stand against Sitting Bull at the Battle of Little Big Horn. 

One of the most famous cowgirls of the Black Hills was named Calamity Jane. She was a good friend of the famous lawman Wild Bill Hickock.

Gold was first discovered in the Black Hills just a few miles from where Mount Rushmore was later built.

Some would-be miners get tricked by "fools gold," which looks a lot like the real thing. If you want to tell the difference, try pressing your fingernail into the surface. If it leaves a small indent, you've found gold!

The heads on Mount Rushmore are as tall as a six-story building. If you matched them with bodies, the men with those heads would be three times as tall as the Statue of Liberty. 
Some of the individual items the reader needs to know to be a "Black Hills Gold Miner" are odd. Why would you tell the child that the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota people?! You've just read a story about mining for gold... on sacred land? I don't get the logic. How would the story itself be different if the author included the sacred nature of that land within the story? Maybe the author would abandon the project. Maybe the author didn't write these last pages!

Though the reviewer for School Library Journal called this book "educational and fun," I disagree. Stereotypes are not fun, and I don't think the book is educational, either. Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity was published in 2009 by Harper. The author is Sara Pennypacker, and the illustrations are by Macky Pamintuan.

Update: Friday, January 25, 6:00 PM

You may be interested in Monumental Myths - a video about monuments, especially the last segment, which is about Mount Rushmore.

Brandon Mull's FABLEHAVEN: GRIP OF THE SHADOW PLAGUE

A few weeks ago, I pointed to stereotypes in Brandon Mull's Fablehaven: Rise of the Evening Star. Today, I'm pointing to problems in his Fablehaven: Grip of the Shadow Plague. 

First---here's an overview, by Denise Daley (her review is at Barnes and Noble):
Strange things have been happening in Fablehaven. A mysterious shadow plague is slowly overtaking the once peaceful magical creatures that live there. The nipsies are like regular people except they are only about half an inch big. Some of their kingdoms have recently been attacked by other nipsies who have somehow been transformed into sinister beings. Seth is the first to discover the disturbing changes. He and his sister Kendra have been staying with their grandparents at Fablehaven. Kendra has unique abilities that can possibly help, but the situation is extremely dangerous. Kendra's grandparents reluctantly grant her permission to visit a special place where she is inducted into the Knights of the Dawn. She and several other knights immediately begin an assignment to retrieve a hidden artifact. 

That assignment takes her to the "Lost Mesa preserve" (p. 94) in Arizona which is on Navajo land. The hidden artifact is one of five. Together, all five of the artifacts can open a demon prison called Zzyzxa. In chapter 7, Kendra and the other knights arrive at Lost Mesa. Here's the illustration at top of that page:



Some of you will say "but that's Taos!" when you see that page. I sure did! (For those who don't know about Taos Pueblo, do an Internet search of images on Taos Pueblo and you'll find plenty of them.)  There are, in fact, pueblo people in Arizona. The Hopi Nation is there, and, they do have structures like the ones at Taos, but seriously---do the search and there's no denying that a photo of Taos was the inspiration for Brandon Dorman's illustration of Lost Mesa.

Kendra and her group are driven to Lost Mesa by "a quiet Navajo man with leathery skin, probably in his fifties" (p. 122). His name is Neil. He's wearing a cowboy hat and a bolo tie, and though Kendra tries to get him to talk to her, he answers her questions "but never elaborated or made inquiries of his own" (p. 123). Though some of us are quiet like that, I suspect that Mull is drawing on stereotypes of the stoic Indian.

Neil starts talking a bit more when they get closer to Lost Mesa. He tells her they call it Painted Mesa, and that
Almost nobody knows, but part of the reason the Navajo people ended up with the largest reservation in the country was to conceal this hallowed place" (p. 125). 
How, I wonder, do people who aren't Native, or who don't pay attention to the quality of Native content in children's and young adult books, process that line?! Part of it is true. The Navajo Nation does have the largest reservation in the United States. But that bit about having the largest reservation so they could conceal a hallowed place?! Who, in Mull's fantasyland, did THAT?!

Mull has done some research for this book. His research is evident in this exchange, when Kendra asks about Lost Mesa (p. 125):
   "Do Navajo's run it?" Kendra asked.
   "Not solely. We Dine are new here compared to the Pueblo people."
   "Has the preserve been here long?" Kendra asked. She finally had Neil on a roll!
   "This is the oldest preserve on the continent, founded centuries before European colonization, first managed by the ancient race outsiders call Anasazi. Persian magi actually established the preserve. They wanted it to stay a secret. Back then, this land was unknown across the Atlantic. We're still doing a good job at remaining off the map."
   "Painted Mesa can't be seen from outside of the fence?" Kendra asked.
   "Not even by satellites," Neil said proudly. "This preserve is the opposite of a mirage. You don't see us, but we're really here."
In Mull's book, Lost Mesa is an "it" that is "run" by someone. He might know that Native Nations are sovereign governments, but he might also think they're like corporations to be run by someone. From Neil, we learn that the Navajo and Pueblo people run Lost Mesa together. Remember what I said earlier... there are, in fact, Pueblo people in Arizona, but they generally refer to themselves as Hopis. Historically speaking, the Navajo are newcomers to that area.

Let's assume that Mull is talking about villages on one of the Hopi Mesas. They were, in fact, founded centuries before European colonization. But, "first managed by the ancient race outsiders call Anasazi" is a bit messy. "Managed" confirms my suspicion that Mull thinks of Native Nations as companies rather than governments. "Ancient race" is Hopis, but I think it was the Navajo people that called them Anasazi, and then, that term was widely used by anthropologist and archaeologists. For a long time, a lot of people thought the Anasazi people vanished, but today, it is widely acknowledged that we (present day Pueblo Indian) are descendants of that "ancient" people and that we didn't vanish.

But what to make of "Persian magi" who "actually established the preserve" before Europeans even knew the continent existed?! These magi must be part of Mull's fantasy world. He doesn't say they established the village. He specifically says "the preserve."

And then that part about being invisible?! We're supposed to be with Mull in his fantasy world, but as a Native person who knows a lot about the ways that mainstream power structures misrepresent and omit Indigenous people, I gotta say that this is wacky!!!

Moving on...

On page 127, Neil pulls up at a hacienda. There's a pueblo near the hacienda. We meet "a short Native woman" named Rosa and her daughter, Maria, who is "a tall, slender Native American woman with a broad jaw and high cheekbones." Rosa has "copper skin" and is the caretaker of Lost Mesa. They also meet Hal, who is Maria's father and Rosa's husband. He is described as a "potbellied man with narrow shoulders, long limbs, and a heavy gray mustache." I think he's white, don't you? White is the default. Generally speaking, writers only describe skin color when a character is not white.

Hal takes Kendra and Gavin (a youngish knight like Kendra) on a tour of Lost Mesa. They see "an old Spanish mission" with a cemetery and "a pueblo" which, Hal says, "are the oldest structures on the property" (p. 131). Hal stops to feed the zombies in the cemetery.

Yeah... you read that right. Hal tells them that it is the oldest and biggest zombie collection in the world. In the cemetery, there are almost 200 graves. Beside each grave, there's a bell on a small pole, with a cord attached to the bell. The cord goes down into the grave. If a zombie is hungry, it rings its bell. Hal lifts a tube, unstops it, puts a funnel in it, and pours "goopy red fluid" from a bucket down into the grave. Are you creeped out? Or grossed out?!

Next stop is a museum that houses "the world's largest collection of freestanding magical creature skeletons and other related paraphernalia" (p. 135). Gavin objects to the display of a dragon skeleton, because, he says dragons are sacred, and its sacrilegious to display their bones. That's an interesting turn, given that complete skeletons of Native people were, for many years, displayed like museum objects. For more info on that topic, this video is worth watching:



Back to Mull's story....

That night, the group of knights climbs Lost Mesa to "the Old Pueblo" (p. 204):
Lightning blazed across the sky, the first Kendra had noticed since setting out. For a moment, the entire expanse of the mesa flashed into view. In the distance, toward the center, Kendra saw ancient ruins, layer upon layer of crumbling walls and stairs that must once have formed a more impressive pueblo complex than the structure neighboring the hacienda. Briefly her eye was drawn to the movement of many dancers prancing wildly in the rain on the near side of the ruins. Before she could consider the scene, the lightning flash ended. The distance and the darkness and the rain combined to obscure the revelers even from Kendra's keen eyes. Thunder rumbled, muffled by the wind.
   "Kachinas!" Neil cried
   The middle-aged Navajo rapidly loosed Kendra from the climbing gear, not bothering to remove her harness. Lightning flared again, revealing that the figures were no longer engaged in their frenzied dance. The revelers were charging toward them.
Ok, I'm going to stop reading Mull's book.

Equating kachinas with revelers is offensive. Using "prancing wildly" and "frenzied" to describe them is also offensive. Seems to me that Mull is the one in a frenzy!  Caught up in superficial knowledge of Native peoples, he inserts stereotypes and misinformation into another genre of children's literature. Some might find his books engaging. I find them insulting.

Why, I wonder, did Mull feel compelled to write Native people into his book?!

No doubt, fans of Mull's series will submit comments to this review, telling me "its just a book" and "its fantasy, not non-fiction, so leave it alone!"

The fact is, it isn't ONE book. It isn't just Mull's Fablehaven series. Its misrepresentation and stereotyping in books published every year, going back hundreds of years. It'll only stop when we stop buying books like this.

Consider what you have on your library shelves right now. If you started a pile of fiction and nonfiction books that misrepresent Indigenous people, and placed alongside it ones that accurately portray Indigenous people, you'd see what I mean. And hopefully, you'd start to deselect those with misrepresentations. Course, you'd have a lot of space, but you could fill that space with books that don't misinform your patrons and students. Won't that be better? For all of us?


Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Louise Erdrich's CHICKADEE wins the 2013 Scott O'Dell Award for Historical Fiction!


Congratulations to Louise Erdrich!  Chickadee was selected as the recipient of the 2013 Scott O'Dell Award for Historical Fiction. From the Horn Book website:
The 2013 Scott O’Dell Award for Historical Fiction goes to Louise Erdrich for Chickadee, published by Harper, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The annual award, created by Scott O’Dell and Zena Sutherland in 1982 and now administered by Elizabeth Hall, carries with it a prize of $5000, and goes to the author of a distinguished work of historical fiction for young people published by a U. S. publisher and set in the Americas. This is the second O’Dell Award for Louise Erdrich; she won it in 2006 for The Game of Silence, also published by Harper. (The honors don’t stop there; Erdrich also just won the 2012 National Book Award for her adult novel The Round House.)
Here's more from their remarks about the book:
The book has humor and suspense (and disarmingly simple pencil illustrations by the author), providing a picture of 1860s Anishinabe life that is never didactic or exotic and is briskly detailed with the kind of information young readers enjoy: who knew, for example, that an oxcart train would be so loud, or that mosquitoes could be so terrifying? Anishanabe beliefs about the spiritual connections between humans and the natural world are conveyed matter-of-factly as Chickadee gets help and encouragement from his namesake bird; the Christian faith of the “Black Robes” is also given nuance and respect. Chickadee’s first taste of a peppermint stick in the burgeoning city of St. Paul is just one sign of the increasingly multicultural nature of his family’s world, a world that we hope this author continues to chronicle.

Do you have a copy of it yet? Order one today from Birchbark Books.

In September, 2012, Martha V. Parravano of Horn Book interviewed Erdrich. Check it out, too! In the interview, she says that her next book will be titled Makoons. In it she says that she will be "writing from the living memory" of her relatives. Her writing is exquisite. It'll be hard to wait, but also something to look forward to!
Five questions for Louise Erdrich

S. D. Nelson's GREET THE DAWN THE LAKOTA WAY

This is my favorite page...



... in S. D. Nelson's Greet the Dawn the Lakota Way. Why, you wonder? Simple. As a Pueblo Indian kid growing up on our reservation in New Mexico, I rode a yellow school bus just like that. Illustrations like that make me smile because they reflect my reality, my personal experience, my life as a Native child. Native children today need that sort of thing because it provides them with a mirror of who they are.

On the facing page, several children run towards the bus. Some are carrying band instruments! Again! That was me! Carrying my clarinet!

Enough reminiscing.

Here's the cover for Nelson's book:


Ok.... more reminiscing. My grandfather, dad, uncle and brothers had horses that we rode around the reservation. We laugh today, remembering Perla, the mare that would simply lay down to get rid of us. I vividly recall feeling the shift in her bones at that moment when she decided she was going to lay down. We'd have to pull our legs up quick-like and be ready to leap off. And of course, we were riding in the same sort of clothes the kids on the cover of Greet the Dawn are wearing.

The beauty in Nelson's book is that he puts our existence in the present day, but through his art, he conveys the fact that in our communities, we are in touch with our identity as Native people whose spiritualities--across our many nations--are unique, vibrant, and, like the air we breathe, all around us.

Another couple of huge plus factors for Nelson's book is that it includes Lakota songs, in Lakota and English. And, he notes the source for the songs in "A Note about the Illustrations and the Text" in the back of the book. He takes care, in other words, to point us to his sources. There's no ambiguity in what he says.

One last comment... the page where a family is shown outside at night, welcoming the moon? An elder is shown, sitting on a folding chair. That is another familiar image, firmly grounded in my reality.

Order a copy today from a small bookstore, like Louise Erdrich's Birchbark Books. Greet the Dawn the Lakota Way was published in 2012 by the South Dakota State Historical Society Press.

Oh! Forgot to include the trailer. Here it is:



And... Nelson is Standing Rock Sioux.

Update: Montana's Indian Education For All program


In 2006, I wrote a short post about an educational initiative in Montana. Called "Indian Education for All," it is designed to provide all students in Montana with accurate information about American Indians.

Today, I'm pointing you to "The Positive Impact of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Montana's Indian Education for All" by Jioanna Carjuzaa. Her article is in Volume 14(3) of the International Journal of Multicultural Education. Published in 2012, here's the abstract:
Montana's Indian Education for All Act is an unprecedented state constitutional mandate requiring educators to integrate American Indian content into its instruction. Not all educators in this western state in the United States embrace this requirement, but those who do become change agents as they lead students to challenge the status quo. Tensions between Indians and non-Indians influence Montana's historical and contemporary social fabric. From reservation border towns to urban school districts, and even in the state government, pervasive lack of cultural awareness contributes to misunderstandings and persistent inequities. Yet, in this climate, students are stepping up and speaking out.
If you are interested in making your library's collection more inclusive, or revamp your curriculum so that it increases cultural awareness of Indigenous people, take a look at the article (if the link doesn't work, write to me and I'll send it to you) and at the website, too:

The Positive Impact of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
Indian Education for All at website for Montana's Office of Public Instruction


Monday, January 21, 2013

First Image of "Indian" in Children's Book

In 1657, John Amos Comenius wrote and illustrated Orbis Pictus, an encyclopedic picture book for children that is now commonly recognized as the first picture book for children. In honor of Comenius, the National Council of Teachers of English established a nonfiction book award and named it the Orbis Pictus Award for Outstanding Nonfiction for Children.

Comenius included what the world now knows as American Indians, or, Native Americans, in his book in the section about religion, where he wrote:

The Indians, 10. even at this day, worship the Devil, 11.

Here's the illustration. The Indian and Devil are on the right. According to Comenius, the Indian is kneeling to "worship the Devil."



I don't mean to suggest that NCTE ought not to have named the award after the book. The book itself does mark an important moment.

I do wish that writers, illustrators, reviews, publishers, teachers, and librarians would be more thoughtful about misrepresentations in things they write, illustrate, publish, teach, and share today. You can't, of course, misrepresent what people like Comenius thought, but you can present their thoughts in a way that points out the errors of that thinking. And, of course, it is important for authors and illustrators to be tribally specific in any work they do about American Indians. 

Friday, January 18, 2013

Von Otfried Preussler's THE LITTLE WITCH

Fellow blogger Monica Edinger pointed to a story in The Guardian about changes made to Von Otfried Preussler's The Little Witch. Though I'm not certain, I think the English language version was published in 1961. It was first published in 1957 in Germany.

From what I've been able to piece together, its a story about a good witch who goes to a gathering of witches. She's told she can't be there until she becomes a 'good' witch, with 'good' meaning one who does bad deeds, not good ones.

The Little Witch is in the news because in its newest version, some words have been replaced, including "neger" which translates to "negro" in the English versions. Here's an excerpt from the article:
The word "Neger", seen as politically incorrect in Germany today, is used during a section of the story when the witch and her raven Abraxas see a group of children in fancy dress for a carnival. "The two little Negro boys didn't come from the circus," writes the award-winning translator Anthea Bell in an English edition. "No more did the Turks and Indians. The Chinese women, the cannibal, the Eskimo girl, the desert sheikh and the Hottentot chief were not part of the show either. No – it was carnival time in the village. The children had a half-holiday from school because of the carnival, and they were romping about the village square in fancy dress."
The article doesn't say what neger/negro was replaced with. Course, I wondered about the Indians and Eskimo, so did a bit of searching and found this image:

Source: http://www.flickriver.com/photos/mickythepixel/sets/72157627834517776/


I don't know if that is the page in question. I can't find (on the source pages for that image) what version of the book the image is from (German or English or one of the 47 other languages The Little Witch is available in). If it is the illustration for the page(s) that have been "modernised," I wonder how the text for the page was rewritten, and, if they removed "neger" and the two boys, too.

I wondered, on reading "Indians" and "Eskimo," how they'd be shown. The boy in the headdress above provides a partial answer, and I think the character behind him might be the Eskimo. What do you think? Of course, we're in stereotype-land here. Though the publisher used "politically correct" to describe their changes, they could have used "stereotype" instead and they could have done a bit more revising...