Showing posts sorted by relevance for query island of the blue dolphins. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query island of the blue dolphins. Sort by date Show all posts

Thursday, June 16, 2016

A critical look at O'Dell's ISLAND OF THE BLUE DOLPHINS


Update on Sep 24, 2018:
I (Debbie), shared this post on Twitter yesterday, because I was critiquing a young adult novel in which the author cited Island of the Blue Dolphins as a significant book from her childhood. Dr. Eve Tuck read my tweet, this post, and responded. Dr. Tuck is Aleut, and is an Education professor who has served as editor of NCTE's English Journal. See her article, Decolonization is not a metaphor, and her books, listed at her website. With her permission, I am adding her response to my tweet and article. They are at the bottom of this post.



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"A Critical Look at O'Dell's Island of the Blue Dolphins"
Debbie Reese (published here on June 16, 2016)

Scott O'Dell's Island of the Blue Dolphins is set on San Nicolas Island, a small island off the coast of Santa Barbara California. In the Author’s Note at the back of the book, O’Dell writes that “[t]he girl Robinson Crusoe whose story I have attempted to re-create actually lived alone upon this island from 1835 to 1853, and is known to history as The Lost Woman of San Nicolas” (p. 187). Because nobody could understand her language, her given name is not known. Named Juana Maria by the Mission priest who took her in at Santa Barbara Mission, she died six weeks after her rescue. To anthropologists, the people of the island are known as Nicoleños.

In his story, O’Dell changes Juana Maria’s status to a twelve-year old girl named Karana. As the story opens, Karana and her little brother Romo are digging roots when a ship arrives. On board is a Russian captain named Orlov who has come with forty of his (Aleut) men to hunt sea otter. Based on past experiences, Chief Chowig (Karana’s father) and Orlov have a tense discussion about what the Ghalas-at will receive in return for the otters that will be taken from the waters that abut the island. Months later when Orlov readies to leave without holding up his end of the bargain, a fight breaks out. Most of the men of Ghalas-at, including Chowig, are killed. Two years later, the survivors are rescued. After the rescue ship leaves the cove, Karana realizes Romo is not on board. She jumps ship to stay with him and wait for another rescue ship. Soon after, wild dogs kill Romo, and Karana is alone until her rescue.

Her years on the island make survival a central theme of the story. During that time, she builds several shelters, makes weapons that only men are supposed to make (according to tribal traditions), finds food, fights wild dogs, befriends a large dog that she thinks came to the island with the Russian ship and then when he dies, tames a wild dog that she thinks was fathered by the large dog. She survives an earthquake, a tsunami, and several harsh winter storms.

At the close of the story, she is leaving the island. Based on the text, she has been there at least four years. On page 162, the text reads that two years have passed since the Aleuts had been on the island. At that point, Karana stopped counting the passage of time. One spring, there is an earthquake. As she makes a new shelter, she sees a ship and at first, she hides from the two men who come ashore. She decides she wants to be with people again, and rushes down to the cove but the canoe is gone. Two years pass and a ship returns. This time, she doesn’t hide. When the ship leaves, she is on board with her dog and two caged birds.

A few words about Scott O’Dell

Born in Los Angeles, California in 1898, O’Dell died in 1989. He spent the first thirty years of his adult life working in Hollywood as a cameraman and writer. In 1920, a California newspaper misprinted Odell Gabriel Scott’s name as Scott O’Dell. Liking the misprint, Scott legally changed his name and from then on, was known as Scott O’Dell. In 1947, he became the book editor for the Los Angeles Daily News (Payment, 2006).

In addition to his writing, O’Dell spent time with his father on his orange grove ranch, where he visited ranches of Spanish families of the Pomona Valley and listened to their stories of the past. This led him to write three novels for adults, and a history of California.

In 1957, O’Dell published Country of the Sun: Southern California, An Informal History and Guide. Therein, he references Helen Hunt Jackson’s articles, published in 1882 in Century Magazine, about the mistreatment of the Cupeno Indians of California. He also references her novel, Ramona, published in 1884, saying her novel “had about the same impact as Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Overnight, the country was aroused to the plight of the Southern California Indian” (p. 52). Country of the Sun includes two pages about “The Lost Woman of San Nicolas Island”.

O’Dell developed the story into a book-length manuscript and showed it to Maud Lovelace (author of the Betsy-Tacy books). She persuaded him “that it was a book for children, and a very good one” (Scott O’Dell, n.d.). Lovelace penned the biography for O’Dell when he won the Newbery Medal for Island of the Blue Dolphins. She concludes the biography with “Scott O’Dell’s life brought him naturally a knowledge of Indians, dogs, and the ocean; and he was born with an inability to keep from writing. So he gave us the moving legend of Karana” (p. 108).

In his acceptance speech, O’Dell referenced animal cruelty and forgiveness as themes that are present in his book. He also spoke at length of Antonio Garra, a Cupeno Indian man who, just before he was executed under bogus charges, said “I ask your pardon for all my offenses, and I pardon you in return” (O’Dell, p. 103). O’Dell went on to say that this man, of a peaceful tribe, is unknown to the world because he was peaceful rather than “like Geronimo” (p. 103). Karana, he said, belonged to a tribe like Garra’s. He concluded his speech saying that Karana, before her people were killed, lived in a world where “everything lived only to be exploited” but that she “made the change from that world” to “a new and more meaningful world” because she learned that “we each must be an island secure unto ourselves” where we “transgress our limits” in a “reverence for all life” (p. 104).

Acclaim and Critiques of Island of the Blue Dolphins

Island of the Blue Dolphins received glowing reviews and went on to win the Newbery Award. It was made into a movie in 1964 and has since been made into audio recordings several times. The National Council of Teachers of English listed it on its “Books for You” in 1972, 1976, and 1988. In 1976, the Children’s Literature Association named it one of the ten best American children’s books of the past 200 years (O’Dell, 1990). It is the subject of numerous amateur videos on YouTube and there are volumes of lesson plans written for teachers. Over the years, the cover has changed several times. As of this writing, it has 734 customer reviews on Amazon.com. Thirty-three readers gave it one star, while over 600 gave it four or five stars. 

In 1990, Island of the Blue Dolphins was republished, with illustrations rendered by Ted Lewin, and an introduction by Zena Sutherland. A fiftieth anniversary edition was published in 2010, with a new introduction by Lois Lowry. She showers O’Dell’s novel with praise, noting that he “masterfully” brings the reader onto the island (O’Dell, 2010). In 2010, School Library Journal blogger Elizabeth Bird listed it as one of the Top 100 Children’s Novels (Reese, 2010). In 2010, the book was listed in second place on Amazon’s list of “Bestsellers in Children’s Native American Books” (Reese, 2010).

In the academic literature, Maher (1992) writes that Island of the Blue Dolphins is a “counterwestern” that gives “voice to the oppressed, to those who lost their lands and their cultures” (p. 216). Tarr (1997) disagrees with that assessment, asserting that the reader’s uncritical familiarity with stereotypical depictions of American Indians is the reason it has fared so well. Moreover, Tarr (2002) writes that the stoic characterization of Karana and her manner of speaking without contractions are stereotypical Hollywood Indian depictions rather than one that might be called authentic. Placing the novel in a social and historical context gives depth to Tarr’s statement and also explains why it is so popular.

Island of the Blue Dolphins in a Social and Historical Context

In the years preceding the publication of Island of the Blue Dolphins, America was enjoying the heyday of Hollywood Westerns that depicted savage Indians who terrorized settlers and captured their women, and heroic White men who courted Indian maidens and bemoaned the way Indians were treated by Whites. John Ford’s Stagecoach (1939) follows a stagecoach of travelers who must be mindful of Indian attacks. Broken Arrow (1950) featured Jimmy Stewart as a man in love with an Apache girl and who, out of love and sympathy, tries to help make peace between the Apaches and the U.S. troops. In The Searchers (1956), John Wayne plays the role of a man on the search for a White girl who had been abducted by Indians.

Some of the research that went into Country of the Sun reappears in Island. Presumably, O’Dell conducted his research during the 1950s. That decade was a devastating time for several American Indian nations, a time during which their identity as sovereign nations was again under government attack. It is useful to review how they came to be known as sovereign nations.

From the moments of their arrival on the continent now called North America, Europeans encountered well-ordered nations or tribes of Indigenous peoples, each with its own territories and forms of governance. Recognition of that nationhood is evident in the treaties European heads of state made with their counterparts amongst the 500+ sovereign Indigenous nations (Deloria and DeMallie, 1999). In the treaties, lands were ceded to the United States in return for federally provided health care, housing, and education. As time passed, various entities wanted to nullify the treaties, thereby discontinuing federal funding to tribes and making available lands held by tribes. Desire for land, coupled with the rampant corruption within the Bureau of Indian Affairs that had federal oversight for the tribes, led Congress to terminate its nation-to-nation relationship with the tribes through a policy outlined in House Concurrent Resolution 108 (Wilkinson and Biggs, 1977) that led to several public laws enacted by Congress, including the California Rancheria Termination Act (Public Law 85-671). Through the Termination period (1953-1962), over one hundred bands, communities, and rancherias (California Mission Indians) in California were terminated (Nies, 1996). Given his care to include mistreatment of California Indians in the 1800s, it is curious that O’Dell does not reference any of the Terminations in Country of the Sun.

Emma Hardacre’s Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island

As noted, Island of the Blue Dolphins is based on the life of Juana Maria. At the time of his research, the resources he had available to him about Juana Maria were newspaper accounts and articles about her. Emma Hardacre’s “The Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island” was first published in Scribner’s Monthly in 1880, and then again in 1950 and 1973. Hardacre begins by noting that Robinson Crusoe is a work of fiction, whereas the story of the Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island was true. In Santa Barbara, people spoke less and less about the “widow, between twenty and thirty years of age” who leapt from the ship to be with her child who had accidentally been left behind (p. 75).

Years later, a Mission priest named Father Gonzales commissioned Thomas Jeffries to go to San Nicolas to see if she was still alive. Jeffries (p. 277):
found the remains of a curious hut, made of whales’ ribs planted in a circle, and so adjusted as to form the proper curve of a wigwam-shaped shelter. This he judged to have been formerly either the residence of the chief or a place of worship where sacrifices were offered. He had picked up several ollas, or vessels of stone, and one particularly handsome cup of clouded green serpentine. 

More interesting to Jeffries was the abundance of sea otter. Soon after his return to the mainland, he returned to the island with George Nidiver and a crew of Indians on an otter hunt. For six weeks, they hunted seal and otter. Leaving the island, a sailor said he thought he saw a human figure calling to them, but the figure vanished.

On their third trip to hunt at the island, Nidiver saw a footprint and exclaimed that the woman was alive. The next day, Nidiver found a basket that contained “bone needles, thread made of sinews, shell fishhooks, ornaments, and a partially completed robe of birds’ plumage, made of small squares neatly matched and sewed together” (p. 279). In their search of the inland, they found “several circular, roofless inclosures [sic], made of woven brush. Near these shelters were poles, with dried meat hanging from elevated crosspieces” (p. 279). Not finding the woman, they determined the footprint was older than they thought, and some thought that she was probably dead. Fishing continued for several weeks. Nidiver believed she might be alive and hiding and decided to look until he found her or her remains.

A search was organized. They found the whale bone house, where “rushes were skillfully interlaced in the rib framework; an olla and old basket were near the door.” (p. 279).  Climbing over slippery rocks, they found fresh footprints and followed them up a cliff. Brown, a fisherman, saw the woman in an enclosure and approached her. A pack of dogs growled at him but ran away when she uttered a cry that silenced them. She did not see Brown approaching. Hardacre reports that “the complexion of the woman was much fairer than the ordinary Indian, her personal appearance pleasing, features regular, her hair, thick and brown, falling about her shoulders in a tangled mat” (p. 280). She was anxiously watching the men below her dwelling. Brown signaled to the men that he had found her and that they should approach. When he spoke to her, she ran a few steps, then (p. 280):
instantly controlling herself, stood still, and addressed him in an unknown tongue. She seemed to be between forty and fifty years of age, in fine physical condition, erect, with a well-shaped neck and arms and unwrinkled face. She was dressed in a tunic-shaped garment made of birds’ plumage, low in the neck, sleeveless, and reaching to the ankle.

She greeted the other men and then set about preparing a meal for them that consisted of roasted roots. Through gestures, they communicated that she was to go with them. She understood immediately and put her things in pack baskets. 

On board their ship, Brown wanted to preserve her feather dress, and so made her a petticoat of ticking. He gave her a man’s cotton shirt and a neckerchief. She watched Brown closely as he sewed, and showed him how she used her bone needle to puncture the cloth and then put thread through the perforations. Through gestures, she told Brown of her years on the island, how she made fire “by rapidly rubbing a pointed stick along the groove of a flat stick until a spark was struck” and that she was careful not to let it go out, covering her home fire with ashes to preserve it. She ate fish, seals’ blubber, roots, and shellfish, and she used bird skins for clothing. Her main dwelling was a large cave on the north end of the island. 

On arrival in Santa Barbara, people flocked to Nidiver’s home to see her. Through gestures, she told Nidiver’s wife that dogs had eaten her baby and how she grieved its loss. She also communicated her dread of being alone, her years of hope for rescue, and at last, resignation at being alone. Nidiver was unable to find anyone amongst the Indians in the Missions who could understand her language. They learned some of her words: “A hide she called to-co (to-kay); a man, nache (nah-chey); the sky, te-gua (tay-gwah); the body, pinche  (pin-oo-chey)” (p. 283). She was so gentle and modest that some believed she was not an Indian, but “a person of distinction cast away by shipwreck” (p. 283). She got weaker and weaker and when she was near death, Nidiver’s wife asked Father Sanchez to baptize her. He did so, giving her the name Juana Maria. She was buried in a walled cemetery and the mission fathers “sent her feather robes to Rome. They were made of the satiny plumage of the green cormorant, the feathers pointing downward, and so skillfully matched as to seem one continuous sheen of changeful luster” (p. 284).

Academic Resources

The academic resources on the people of San Nicolas Island were scant at that time that O’Dell wrote Island of the Blue Dolphins. Archeological studies post-1960 have generated a richer body of materials. Pre-1960, O’Dell likely drew from resources he used when writing his history of California. These included Kroeber’s handbook. He reports that her speech (language) was “thoroughly unintelligible” to Chumash Indians in the area and to Indians from Santa Catalina Island as well (p. 634). Most dwellings, Kroeber wrote, “were reared on a frame of whale ribs and jaws, either covered with sea-lion hides or wattled with brush or rushes” (p. 634). Dugout canoes “may have been burned from drift logs” (p. 634). Seals, water birds, fish, and mollusks were the primary source of food, supplemented by roots. He concludes with “whether the toloache cult or the image form of mourning anniversary had reached the island must remain in abeyance; and as to society, there is total ignorance. Ghalas-at has been given as the name of the island. This is perhaps the native or the Chumash pronunciation of Gabrielino Haras-nga” (p. 635.)

O’Dell may have read a study published in an archeological journal in 1953. Meighan and Eberhart’s study stated that “ethnographically, almost nothing is known of the tribe” and that there was a “virtual absence of trade goods, in particular glass beads” (p. 109). They reference the possessions of the woman as follows: “a well made sinew rope 25 feet long and one-half inch in diameter, thought to have been used in snaring sleeping seals” and, “sinew fishing line; bone and abalone shell fishhooks; bone needles; bone knives, and a knife made of a piece of iron hoop stuck in a rough wooden handle” (p. 112). Items found on the island include mats and skirt fragments made of eel grass, grass skirts, woven bags, woven baskets, stone knives with wooden handles, a stone drill with a wooden handle, wooden knife handles, a wooden ladle, an arrow shaft, a wooden dark foreshaft with bone bars, a drill with wooden shaft and stone point, harpoon points, a great many mortars and pestles, steatite dishes and bowls, stone beads and pendants, bird and sea-lion claws used as pendants, stone ground spoons and ladles . Meighan and Eberhart report four Nicoleno words: “tokay (hide), nahchey (man), taygway (sky), and pinoochey (body). Bird bones were used to make beads, whistles, awls, and fishhooks.  Fish and shellfish were the primary source of food, including abalone, rock scallops, mussels, limpets, and sea urchins.

Clearly, these two key sources say little was known about the people of Ghalas-at and the woman at the heart of O’Dell’s novel. And yet, he was able to write a novel of 186 pages. With this survey of the source material of that time, I turn to a close read of specific passages from the story.

A Close Read of Island of the Blue Dolphins
In the following table, the left column contains a selection of material from the story. In the right column are notes specific to the information in the left column. Some of the passages are not addressed in the Discussion following the table; they are retained in the table for further research.
Text
Notes
“I remember the day the Aleut ship came to our island” (p. 9)
“I” is Karana. On page 12, O’Dell tells us the name of the island: Ghalas-at. The Aleut’s are an Indigenous people from what came to be known as Alaska. During the time of the novel (1835), the Aleuts were enslaved by Russians and forced to hunt sea otters (Pullar, 1996).
Karana describes Romo, her 6-year old brother: “He was small for one who had lived so many suns and moons” (p. 9)
Writers often use the cliché “many moons ago” when writing from an Indian point of view. Though it is obvious that people who do not speak English would have words in their language for sun or moon or the passage of time, the “many moons ago” idiom, inserted into the mind/mouth of any Native character obscures the diversity of language.
When Romo sees the Aleut ship, he describes it as “a small cloud” (p. 10).
In Country of the Sun, O’Dell recounts a Cahuilla legend, “The Lost Spanish Galleon” (p. 147) that begins with Cahuilla men seeing a Spanish galleon and thinking it was a cloud.
As Orlov comes ashore, “Half the men from our village stood at the water’s edge. The rest were concealed among the rocks at the foot of the trail, ready to attack the intruders should they prove unfriendly” (p. 12).
In Country of the Sun, when the Spanish galleon is sighted, O’Dell writes “The Cahuillas hid themselves behind rocks along the shore” and their chief “cautioned his people to remain hidden” (p. 148).
When Captain Orlov comes ashore and begins negotiations with Karana’s father who is chief of the people at Ghalas-at, Karana is surprised that her father gives Orlov his seldom used and secret “real” name (Chowig) because “if people use your secret name it becomes worn out and loses its magic” (p. 13).
Look for: Names and their power.
“Karana” is the protagonists’ secret name. Her common name is “Won-a-pa-lei” which means “The Girl with the Long Black Hair” (p. 13).
The translation does not make sense, given the likelihood that all the girls would have long black hair.
The Aleuts come ashore, and Karana sees “a tall man with a yellow beard” (p. 12).
In Country of the Sun, Yuma Indians and a “bearded” Spanish captain come ashore (p. 148).
The night Orlov arrives, her father “warned everyone in the village of Ghalas-at against visiting the camp. “The Aleuts come from a country far to the north,” he said. “Their ways are not ours nor is their language” (p. 17).
From O’Dell’s Country of the Sun: The night the Spanish came ashore, “Darkness fell and the Cahuillas went silently back to their village and held council far into the night. The older men, who had heard tales of Spanish greed and ferocity, were in favor of abandoning the village and taking the women and children into the mountains. But the younger men, proud of their heritage as warriors and jealous of it, prevailed” (p. 148). They lay plans for an attack.
Each night, people in the tribe “counted the dead otter and thought of the beads and other things that each pelt meant” (p. 23).

Karana does not like the slaughter of the otters she regards as friends she would have fun watching as they played. “It was more fun than the thought of beads to wear around my neck” (p. 23).
This is O’Dell’s first mention of beads. Presumably, the negotiations that took place when Orlov landed included beads but this was not specified.

In Country of the Sun: The next morning, the Spanish gave each of the Indians “a handful of beaded trinkets” (p. 149).

The beads story works because it plays on the idea that Indians are not smart enough to know that their land and resources aren’t worth more than beads. Williams’ analysis of Dutch, Manhattan, beads is excellent.
Karana’s father sends young men “to the beach to build a canoe from a log which had drifted in from the sea” (p. 24).
Kroeber: Canoes “may have been burned from drift logs” (p. 634).
Orlov and his men prepare to leave without paying for the otter pelts. Chowig speaks to Orlov, who signals his men to bring a black chest to the island: “Captain Orlov raised the lid and pulled out several necklaces. There was little light in the sky, yet the beads sparkled as he turned them this way and that” (p. 27)
The archeological record (Kroeber/Meighan & Eberhart) does not list sparkly beads recovered on San Nicolas Island.


Items Karana has in a basket she carries onto the rescue ship: “three fine needles of whalebone, an awl for making holes, a good stone knife for scarping hides, two cooking pots, and a small box made from a shell with many earrings in it” (p. 42).
References to these items are in the historical record.
Karana’s sister, Ulape, “had two boxes of earrings, for she was vainer than I, and when she put them into her basket, she drew a thin mark with blue clay across her nose and cheekbones. The mark meant that she was unmarried” (p. 42).
An assumption that Karana and her people had the same ideas of beauty (vanity) that O’Dell did.
After she leaps off the boat and is back on shore, “The only thing that made me angry was that my beautiful skirt of yucca fibers, which I had worked on so long and carefully, was ruined” (p. 47).
An assumption that Karana and her people held the same ideas of beauty that O’Dell did.
Romo declares that, as son of Chowig, he is now Chief of Ghalas-at. Karana replies that before he can be the chief, he must become a man: “As is the custom, therefore, I will have to whip you with a switch of nettles and then tie you to a red ant hill” (p. 51).
O’Dell’s likely source for this is Kroeber’s Handbook of the Indians of California, Volume 2. On page 672, he describes “The Ant Ordeal” that may have been part of the “Toloache Initiation” of Luiseno boys: “The boys were laid on ant hills, or put into a hole containing ants. More of the insects were shaken over them from baskets in which they had been gathered. The sting or bite of the large ant smarts intensely, and the ordeal was a severe one, and rather doubtfully ameliorated when at the conclusion the ants were whipped from the body by nettles.”
Romo has “a strong of sea-elephant teeth which someone had left behind” (p. 50).
Meighan references sea-lion claws used as pendants.
Karana needs weapons: “The laws of Ghalas-at forbade the making of weapons by women of the tribe, so I went out to search for any that might have been left behind” (p. 58.)
Future research
Thinking the chest Orlov left may have an iron spearhead, Karana digs up the chest and finds it “filled with beads and bracelets and earrings of many colors” (p. 59). There are no spearheads in the chest.
Reference to beads draws on “primitive” (stupid) Indians who sold Manhattan for beads.
Karana “wondered what would happen to me if I went against the law of our tribe which forbade the making of weapons by women—if I did not think of it at all and made those things which I must have to protect myself” (p. 61).
Future research on weaponry.
“There was a legend among our people that the island had once been covered with tall trees. This was a long time ago, at the beginning of the world when Tumaiyowit and Mukat ruled. The two gods quarreled about many things. Tumaiyowit wished people to die. Mukat did not. Tumaiyowit angrily went down, down to another world under this world, taking his belongs with him, so people die because of him” (p. 82).
This story, from the Cupeno Indians, appears in Country of the Sun in “Revolt in the Mountains” as follows: “One of the most dramatic and current [myths of creation], as recounted by Salvador Cuevas, a Luiseno, has the world and everything in it created by the gods Tumaiyowit and Mukat. The gods quarreled and argued about their respective ages. They disagreed about many things. Tumaiyowit wished people to die. Mukat did not. Tumaiyowit went down, down to another world under this world, takig his belongings with him, so people die because he did” (p. 47). It is also in Kroeber’s Handbook, on page 692.
Karana uses several words that she says are in her language:
“Won-a-pa-lei” means “the girl with the long black hair” (p. 13)
“sai-sai” is a kind of fish (p. 85)
“rontu” means fox eyes (p. 105)
“zalwit” means pelican (p. 107)
“naip” means fish (p. 107)
“gnapan” is a thick leaved plant (p. 115)
“Mon-a-nee” means “Girl with the Large Eyes” (p. 160)
“Rontu-Aru” means “son of Rontu” (p. 169)
None of these words are in Kroeber or Hardacre.




Discussion

O’Dell had little to go on in creating the worldview of Karana and her people. To flesh out the story, he inserted his prior research on other California tribes, inserting their ways into the Nicoleno tribe, as though one peoples’ way of being was interchangeable with another. O’Dell wrote Island of the Blue Dolphins prior to the development of multicultural literature and the attention to specificity, so it may be appropriate not to judge him too harshly for doing it. He also drew from popular stereotypes and clichés of American Indians, including the stories in which American Indians traded their land for a string of beads. An American embrace of stereotypes and clichés led to—and guaranteed—the success of the novel.

Island of the Blue Dolphins is a lot like most books and media about American Indians that give the audience the kind of Indians that America loves to love (Shanley, 1997). O’Dell gave us both: the savage ones (the Aleuts), and the gentle ones (Karana’s people). In a spirit of generosity, it is possible to justify why his story met with such success but how do we justify an embrace of it in the present time, when we know so much more about accuracy and authenticity of representation? And why do even our leading scholars fail to step away from the book? For example, in her introduction to the illustrated version, Zena Sutherland conflated the story of Juana Maria with the fictional story of Karana. She incorrectly refers to the Lost Woman as Karana, instead of Juana Maria. She says that she was twelve years old (Juana Maria was a mother, not a child), and that Karana’s brother died on the island (Juana Maria’s child died). The real person is lost in the embrace of the fiction character, Karana. Is sentiment in the way?

Conclusion

There is a fascination, a nostalgia, and a yearning for the romantic Indian and all that “Indian” means to people who think the best life anyone could have is one of the Indian of yesteryear, living in the pristine wilderness, where the weight of the world is not on your shoulders, where you can breath clean air, and drink clean water.

This nostalgia also captures the imaginings of the perfect childhood, but neither one is—or was—real. As such, Island of the Blue Dolphins is a perfect example of a book at the center of the canon of sentiment (Stevenson, 1997). Indeed, the canon of sentiment “exists to preserve—to preserve the childhood of those adults who create that canon and to preserve the affection those adults feel for the books within it” (p. 113). A good many adults imagine the childhood O'Dell described and the survival that Karana experienced. We like to think we could survive, too, and a story like this one lets us see how that could happen. 

Nonetheless, the story is lacking in its accuracy and suitability for informing children about American Indians. Will there come a time when there is a critical mass of gatekeepers rejecting works like this? I hope so. Sentiment is no excuse for ignorance.



References

Deloria, V. and DeMallie, R. J. Documents of American Indian Diplomacy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hardacre, Emma. (1971). The Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island. The California Indians: Source Book, edited by R. F. Heizer and M. A. Whipple. Berkeley: University of California Press, 272-281.

Kroeber, A.L. (1925). Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Lovelace, M. H. (1961). Scott O’Dell: Biographical note. The Horn Book Magazine, 37,
105-108.

Maher, S. N. (1992). Encountering others: The meeting of cultures in Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins and Sing Down the Moon. Children’s Literature in Education, 23(4), 215-227.

Meighan, C.W. and Eberhart, H. (1953). Archaeological resources of San Nicolas Island, California. American Antiquity, 19(2), 109-125.

Nies, J. (1996). Native American History. New York: Ballantine Books.

O’Dell, S. (1957). Country of the Sun: Southern California, An Informal History and Guide. New York: Thomas E. Crowell Company.

O’Dell, S. (1961). Acceptance paper. The Horn Book Magazine, 37, 99-104.

O’Dell, S. (1978). Island of the Blue Dolphins. Trumpet Club Edition. New York: Dell Publishing Co.

O’Dell, S. (1990). Island of the Blue Dolphins. With illustrations by Ted Lewin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Payment, S. (2006). Scott O’Dell. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Pullar, G. L. (1996). Alutiiq. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. Edited by Mary B. Davis.

Scott O’Dell (n.d.). More about Scott. 

Shanley, K. W. (1997). The Indians America loves to love and read: American Indian identity and cultural appropriation. American Indian Quarterly, 21(4), 675-702.

Stevenson, D. (1997). Sentiment and significance: The impossibility of recovery in the children’s literature canon or, the drowning of The Water-babies. The Lion and the Unicorn, 21(1), 112.

Tarr, C. A. (1997). An unintentional system of gaps: A phenomenological reading of Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins. Children’s Literature in Education, 28(2), 61-71.

Tarr, C. A. (2002). Apologizing for Scott O’Dell: Too little, too late. Children’s Literature, 30199-204.

Wesselhoeft, C. (2010). Scott O’Dell, ‘Blue Dolphins’ author, tells why he writes for children. Retrieved from http://adiosnirvana.com/?p=480

Wilkinson, C.F. and Biggs, E.R. (1977). The evolution of the termination policy. American Indian Law Review 5(1), 139-184.


__________________
Update, June 17, 2016: Bridgid Shannon, a colleague in children's literature, pointed me to the Lone Woman and Last Indians Digital Archives, a page maintained by the National Park Service. Do take a look! Lots of terrific info from a team led by Sara L. Schwebel.

Update, June 19, 2016: Lauren Peters, a fellow member of the American Indian Library Association, sent me her review of Island of the Blue Dolphins. She posted it in 2013: Defending the Aleuts in Island of the Blue Dolphins.  

__________
Update, September 24, 2018: Professor Eve Tuck's response to this article consists of a series of tweets. Her thread started at 8:07 AM on September 23, 2018. 
I appreciate the thorough analysis that has done here. As an Aleut person, I can say that the inaccuracies depiction of Aleut people in this book meant that non-Indigenous people said a lot of painful and ignorant things to me, especially as a kid.
I was a kid growing up in a white rural town in Pennsylvania, and usually ours was the only Native family in the community. I attended a school that had multiple copies of this book in classrooms, the library. I remember there even being a door display of this book.
So I grew up in a white community that only knew of Aleuts (Unangan) from this book.
I was taunted for it. I was asked by children and teachers to explain why Aleuts were “so mean.” And no matter what I said about my family, especially my grandmother, it wasn’t believed.
The book was believed over my real-life knowledge of Aleut people.
Fictionalizing an Indigenous community to make them the violent device of your plot line is a totally settler thing to do. O’Dell had no business writing a word “about” our people.
The book says nothing about us. Like Gerald Vizenor’s analysis of the figure of the ‘indian,’ it says more about the violent preoccupations of the settler, and says nothing about Unangan.
The last thing that I will say is that when I think about colonial violence that Aleut people were *actually* experiencing in their/our homelands in the time period that the book was set, it makes me doubly angry about the falsehoods depicted in this book.
But that would never be a best seller.

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

AICL Cringes: ISLAND OF THE BLUE DOLPHINS is the all-time best selling Newbery Medal winning book.

Editor's Note: On 2/24/2014, I inserted "AICL Cringes" to the initial title of this post, to clarify how I feel about ISLAND being the all-time best selling Newbery Medal book. I also added a link to a presentation I developed on the book, using Prezi. 

Over at SLJ's 100 Scope Notes, Travis Jonker posted a infographic about books that have won the Newbery Medal. I like infographics. They are way cool, and I want to learn how to make them.

Here's a blown-up chunk of the infographic:



Island of the Blue Dolphins is making a lot of money for its publisher, but should any teacher be using it as though it is a reliable story about anyone who is in the book? The Aleuts? The people of San Nicolas?  Learning, as Jonker reports, that it is the all-time bestselling Newbery Medal winning book helps me understand why its publisher wants it listed on CBC Diversity's Bookshelf of "diverse" books. Having a "diversity" stamp on it gives it some credibility it does not deserve.

Lets take a look at some of the "knowledge" the book imparts. Check out this video, titled "Massacre on the Island of the Blue Dolphins" in which one student poses as a reporter who is "reporting live from San Nicolas Island." She is interviewing Kimki, who she says may be the next leader of the Ghalas-at people.


The massacre the reporter is talking about is one in which the Aleut people kill the Ghalas-at people.  One reason the book is a best seller is that it fits with what most people "know" about Indigenous people as warring savages who killed each other as a matter of course, but that's not the case.

There's always more to the story.

More context is vital to understand any warfare or killing. In this case, the Aleut men who worked on the Russian ships were enslaved and if they didn't do as they were told, their women and children would be killed. Whether or not O'Dell knew that when he wrote his book doesn't matter. What does matter is what kids "learn" by reading it today.

In reading Island of the Blue Dolphins, kids "learn" that Aleuts killed all these Ghalas-at people.

That alone is enough reason for me to say that IF it is going to be taught, it should be taught in a critical framework wherein children question what O'Dell wrote.

My source for the info about enslaved Aleuts is Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia, published in 1996 by Garland Publishing.

Update on 2/24/2014: 

Please see the Prezi presentation I made of this book: "An Island of Well-Intentioned Ignorance"

Monday, November 08, 2010

"Bestsellers in Children's Native American Books"

A colleague wrote to ask if I know of a study of the most-assigned Native author in schools. I don't know of one, but will be looking for one, or, trying to figure out how to get the answer to the question, which is basically, "What book about American Indians is most-often taught/assigned in school?" Course, that would vary by grade level and school and other factors like state, public/private, etc.

One thing I (always) wonder about is best-selling books. One source of info is Amazon. In their "Bestsellers in Children's Native American Books" (time/date of list: 7:23 AM, Central Time, November 8, 2010) are the following titles. Some are on their more than once. In some cases, its clear that the duplicate is a Kindle edition, but others seem to just be repeats. There isn't, for example, a note that says it is an audio copy.

It is, overall, a disappointing list and it makes me grumpy on this Monday morning...  I'm glad to see Native authors on the list, but duplicates of some really problematic books like Touching Spirit Bear?! And it is pretty easy to see that Amazon's customers want works of historical fiction or "myths, legends and folktales."  


#1 - The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, by Sherman Alexie.
#2 - Island of the Blue Dolphins, by Scott O'Dell
#3 - One Little, Two Little, Three Little Pilgrims, by B. G. Hennessy
#4 - Island of the Blue Dolphins (Kindle), by Scott O'Dell
#5 - Squanto's Journey: The Story of the First Thanksgiving, by Joseph Bruchac
#6 - Touching Spirit Bear, by Ben Mikaelsen
#7 - North American Indians, by Douglas Gorsline
#8 - Tapenum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times
*#9 - Encounter, by Jane Yolen
#10 - Sing Down the Moon, by Scott O'Dell
#11 - The Rough-Face Girl, by Rafe Martin
#12 - Paddle-to-the-Sea, by Holling C. Holling
#13 - Diamond Willow, by Helen Frost
#14 - Red Fox and His Canoe (I Can Read Book), by Nathaniel Benchley
#15 - The Sign of the Beaver, by Elizabeth George Speare
#16 - The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush, by Tomie de Paola
#17 - Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale, by Gerald McDermott
#18 - Touching Spirit Bear (Kindle) by Ben Mikaelson
#19 - Julie of the Wolves, by Jean Craighead George
#20 - Touching Spirit Bear, by Ben Mikaelsen
#21 - Indian Captive: The Story of Mary Jemison, by Lois Lenski
#22 - Mountain Top Mystery (Boxcar Children), by Gertrude Chandler Warner
#23 - Grandmother's Dreamcatcher, by Becky Ray McCain
#24 - On Mother's Lap, by Ann Herbert Scott
#25 - Horse Diaries #5: Golden Sun, by Whitney Sanderson
#26 - The Indian in the Cupboard, by Lynn Reid Banks
#27 - Sacagawea: American Pathfinder, by Flora Warren Seymour
#28 - Code Talker: A Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War II, by Joseph Bruchac
#29 - The Heart of a Chief, by Joseph Bruchac
#30 - Little Runner of the Longhouse (I Can Red Book 2) by Betty Baker
#31 - Paddle-to-the-Sea, by Holling C. Hollins
#32 - Love Flute, by Paul Goble
#33 - Soft Rain: A Story of the Cherokee Trail of Tears, by Cornelia Cornelissen
#34 - The Journal of Jesse Smoke: A Cherokee Boy, Trail of Tears, 1838, by Joseph Bruchac
#35 - The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, by Sherman Alexie
#36 - The Birchbark House, by Louise Erdrich
#37 - The Legend of the Bluebonnet, by Tomie dePaola
#38 - Buffalo Woman, by Paul Goble
#39 - Cheyenne Again, by Eve Bunting
#40 - Where the Broken Heart Still Beats: The Story of Cynthia Ann Parker, by Carolyn Meyer
#41 - Julie, by Jean Craighead George
#42 - Children of the Longhouse, by Joseph Bruchac
#43 - Sacred Fire, by Nancy Wood
#44 - Island of the Blue Dolphins, by Scott O'Dell
#45 - Mama, Do You Love Me, by Barbara J. Joosse
#46 - The Year of Miss Agnes, by Kirkpatrick Hill
#47 - Sweetgrass Basket, by Marlene Carvell
#48 - Sitting Bull: Dakota Boy, by Augusta Stevenson
#49 - The Talking Earth, by Jean Craighead George
#50 - Rainbow Crow, by Nancy Van Laan
#51 - The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses, by Paul Goble
#52 - The Polar Bear Son: An Inuit Tale, by Lydia Dabcovich
#53 - The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses, by Paul Goble
#54 - Song of the Seven Herbs, by Walking Night Bear
#55 - Ten Little Rabbits, by Virginia Grossman
#56 - The Lost Children: The Boys Who Were Neglected, by Paul Goble
#57- Moccasin Trail, by Eloise Jarvis McGraw
#58 - Thunder Rolling in the Mountains, by Scott O'Dell
#59 - Meet Kaya: An American Girl, by Janet Beeler Shaw
#60 - When the Legends Die, by Hal Borland
#61 - Sacajawea, by Joseph Bruchac
#62 - Knots on a Counting Rope, by John Archambault
#63 - The Porcupine Year, by Louise Erdrich
#64 - Star Boy, by Paul Goble
#65 - Jim and Me, by Dan Gutman
#66 - Kaya: An American Girl: 1764/Box Set, by Janet Beeler Shaw
#67 - Between Earth and Sky: Legends of Native American Sacred Places, by Joseph Bruchac
#68 - Touching Spirit Bear, by Ben Mikaelsen
#69 - Weasel, by Cynthia Defelice
#70 - When the Shadbush Blooms, by Carla Messinger
#71 - On Mother's Lap, by Ann Herbert Scott
#72 - The Captive Princess: A Story Based on the Life of Young Pocahontas
#73 - Powwow's Coming, by Linda Boyden
#74 - The Gift of the Sacred Dog, by Paul Goble
#75 - Streams to the River, River to the Sea, by Scott O'Dell
#76 - Weetamoo: Heart of the Pocassets, Massachusetts - Rhode Island, 1653 (Royal Diaries) by Patricia Clark Smith
#77 - Indian Trail (Choose Your Own Adventure) , by R. A. Montgomery
#78 - Arrow Over the Door, by Joseph Bruchac
#79 - At Seneca Castle, by William W. Canfield
#81 - Pocahontas, by Joseph Bruchac
#82 - Squanto's Journey: The Story of the First Thanksgiving, by Joseph Bruchac
#83 - Christmas Moccsains, by Ray Buckley
#84 - The Game of Silence, by Louise Erdrich
#85 - Encounter, by Jane Yolen
#86 - Beyond the Ridge, by Paul Goble
#87 - Death of the Iron Horse, by Paul Goble
#88 - The Last of the Mohicans, by James Fenimore Cooper
#89 - Island of the Blue Dolphins (illustrated) by Scott O'Dell
#90 - Frozen Fire: A Tale of Courage by James Houston
#92 - Blood on the River: James Town 1607, by Elisa Carbone
#92 - The Give-Away: A Christmas Story in the American Tradition, by Ray Buckley
#93 - Mystic Horse, by Paul Goble
#94 - Eating the Plates: A Pilgrim Book of Food and Manners, by Lucilee Recht Penner
#95 - Mysteries in Our National Parks: Cliff Hanger, by Gloria Skurzynski
#96 - Jim Thorpe, Olympic Champion, by Guernsey Van Riper Jr
#97 - Good Hunting, Blue Sky (I Can Read Book) by Peggy Parish
#98 - Guests, by Michael Dorris
#99 - Hiawatha and Megissogwon by Henry W. Longfellow
#100 - Sing Down the Moon, by Scott O'Dell


Observations? Books by four Native authors are on the list: Sherman Alexie, Joseph Bruchac, Louise Erdrich, and Michael Dorris.  I'll return to this list later to share analyses and observations. Right now, I gotta head to class. The class? American Indian Studies 101, where, over the course of the semester, students gain insight and skills in recognizing problematic depictions of Native peoples. It is encouraging to see that development in them. I wish everyone in the US could take an Intro to American Indian Studies course. Then maybe there'd be some CHANGE in what they buy.

Thursday, January 31, 2013

A Peek at American Indians in Children's Fiction Published from 1955-1965

Nancy Larrick's article, The All White World of Children's Book, was published in 1965. I wondered what I might find if I did a search in the Children's Literature Comprehensive Database, using "Indian" as the search term and limiting the search for fiction published from 1955 to 1965. What, I wondered, were her options for books about American Indians? She was, for those who don't know, looking particularly at depictions of African Americans and was very troubled by what she found. Hence the title of her article "all white."

I ran the search and got 337 titles. I am pasting the results below. As you scroll through the list, you'll see duplicates and you'll see books that obviously don't belong on the list (for example, The Elephant that Galumphed).  

Some observations:

There aren't any authors on the list that I recognize as being Native.

I see that James Fenimore Cooper is on it several times. I'm thinking we can likely credit him with being responsible for a wide range of stereotyping. Good Indians, bad ones, ones who disappear into the mists of time...

Looks like there are several stories of whites who befriend Indians, and, stories of whites who are captured by Indians...

And how 'bout that Bread and Butter Indian by Anne Colver? Interesting title, don't you agree? Wondering what that one is about, I did a quick look-see at Google Books, learned that the illustrations are by Garth Williams! Here's the cover:



And here's the summary of the book:
A little girl named Barbara befriends a hungry Indian, offering him the bread and butter. Later she is kidnaped by a strange Indian. The story describes how the "bread-and-butter" Indian comes to her rescue.
What do you think? Is that Indian on the cover the hungry one? Or the strange one!

Some books on the list make me shudder because they are over-the-top in how they present Native characters (borrowing Rudine Sims Bishop's words about early books about African Americans) as objects of ridicule. Let's take a look at a few of them.

Check out Syd Hoff's Little Chief, the lonely Indian boy with an upside-down feather who finds friends among a wagon load of white kids:



Little Chief was/is an early reader. I don't think its still being published. Thank goodness for that, but believe it or not, Benchley's Red Fox and his Canoe, illustrated by Arnold Lobel, is still being marketed and used as an early reader. Here's an illustration from Red Fox and his Canoe:




Another one still in publication is Good Hunting, Little Indian by Peggy Parrish. But wait! The title is now Good Hunting, Blue Sky! I'll have to see if I can find the older copy so I can compare text and illustrations. For now, here's the covers. The original publication was in 1962, illustrated by Leonard Weisgard. The one with a new title has new illustrations, by James Watts.




Here's a page from inside Good Hunting, Blue Sky:



I'll wrap this up for now and do more analytical work with the list. One thing I'll probably do for a more closely aligned comparison, is limit the search to the specific years of Larrick's study. She looked at books published in 1962, 1963, and 1964.

Before I close, though, I'm going to suggest that no child in your classroom or library gains anything useful by reading Little Chief or Good Hunting, Blue Sky.  Please consider setting them aside.

Sources cited:

Bishop, Rudine Sims. (2012). "Reflections on the Development of African American Children's Literature," Journal of Children's Literature, 38(2), pp. 5-13.

Larrick, Nancy. "The All White World of Children's Books," Saturday Review, September 11, 1965, pp. 63-65+
________________________________________________


CLCD Search

Use your browser's save and print functions to save or print this report.
Use the Back button to return to your search results.Search was for: The word Indian (All Fields).
Singular and plural forms were searched.
Search restricted to books published between 1955 and 1965.
Only works of fiction were retrieved.

AUTHORTITLEYEARPUBLISHERISBNANNOTATIONS
Harrington, M. R.The Indians of New Jersey; Dickon among the Lenapes,1963Rutgers University PressFirst ed. published in 1938 under title: Dickon among the Lenape Indians.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe deerslayer : or, The first war-path1962Collier Books
Stoutenburg, Adrien.The mud ponies : based on a Pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Kendall, Lace.The mud ponies : based on a pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Ward, Nanda Weedon.The elephant that ga-lumphed,1959Ariel Books.After a series of misadventures a noisy baby Indian elephant learns to walk quietly. Grades 1-3.;
Adams, AudreyKarankawa boy.1965Naylor Co.
Adams, Audrey.Karankawa boy.1965Naylor
Allen, T. D.Tall as great standing rock.1963Westminster Press
Allen, Terry.Tall as great standing rock1963Westminster
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571956ScribnerWhile guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James Fenimore.The deerslayer, or, The first warpath1963New American Library
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1957Washington Square Press
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1963E. M. Hale
Annixter, Jane.Windigo1963Holiday House
Armer, Laura (Adams)Waterless mountain1963D. McKay Co.
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959David McKay
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959McKay
Arnold, Elliott.White Falcon1958Knopf
Arntson, Herbert E.Two guns in old Oregon1964Watts, F.
Whipple, Mary AnneThe first Californians1962Shinozaki ShorinTitle on cover: The first Californian.;
Overholser, Wayne D.The Meeker Massacre,1964Cowles0402141016 ; 9780402141013Two boys, one Indian and one white, become involved in the growing conflict between an inflexible Indian agent and a Ute tribe.;
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-death1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-Death.1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse1962Harper & Row0005091829 ; 9780005091821
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper0060203412 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203412A young Indian boy, too young to join the older boys in part of the New Year celebration, celebrates his own way with his family.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 2; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 430; 0430; 00 01 02; 020; 002;
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper
Baker, BettyWalk the world's rim.1965Harper & Row0060203811 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203818Bibliog; As they journey to Mexico, Chakoh, a young Indian boy, and Esteban, a Spanish Negro slave, become friends and teach each other their ways;
Baker, Betty.Walk the world's rim1965Harper & Row0064400263 ; 9780064400268Bibliography: p. [169];
Balch, GlennLittle Hawk and the free horses.1957Crowell
Balch, GlennSpotted horse.1961Crowell
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Ball, ZacharyJoe Panther1961E. M. HaleIn an endeavor to earn money for school, an industrious Seminole becomes a deck hand on a tourist boat and accidently is involved in a smuggling ring.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bealer, Alex W.Picture-skin story1957Holiday
Beatty, PatriciaIndian canoe-maker1960Caxton Printers
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beebe, B. F.Coyote, come home.1963D. McKay Co.A coyote, orphaned as a pup, is rescued and befriended by an old Apache seeking companionship, and provides the aged Indian with loyalty and affection which protects them both.;
Beebe, Burdetta Faye.Chestnut cub1963McKay
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe / (paper)1964Harper & Row0064440753 ; 9780064440752A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Lower Grade; Book Level 2.2; Accelerated Reader Points 0.5; Accelerated Vocabulary, Recorded Voice Quizzes; 00 01 02 03; 022; 000; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 3; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; 00 01 02; 030; 002;
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe1964Harper & Row0060204761 ; 9780060204761A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforeseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe1964Scholastic Book ServicesA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Berry, Erick.Valiant captive ...1962Chilton Co.
Berry, ErickValiant captive; a story of Margaret Eames, captured in 1676 by the Indians from the New Settlement, which later became Framingham, Massachusetts1963Chilton
Booker, Jim.Trail to Oklahoma1959Broadman Press
Borland, Hal GlenWhen the legends die. (paper)1963Lippincott0553113380 ; 9780553113389
Borland, Hal Glen.When the legends die1963Lippincott039700303X: ; 9780397003037
Borland, Hal, GlenWhen the legends die1963Lippincott0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1963Bantam Books
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963Lippincott
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963LippincottAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0553226428 (pbk.) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780553226423"A Bantam Starfire book."; An orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0812416945 (Cover Craft) ; 0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 0881030570 (Econoclad) ; 9780812416947 ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1965Bantam BooksAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Bowers, Gwendolyn.Journey for Jemima.1960Walck, H.Z.
Breedlove, Caroline H.Billy Black Lamb1958U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs"Developed in the Workshop in Navajo Education, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Arizona, May 26-June 6, 1958.";
Brick, John.Captive of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Eagle of Niagara; the story of David Harper and his Indian captivity.1955Doubleday
Brick, John.Tomahawk trail.1962Duell
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud : the Navajo boy1957Viking
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, MaryDancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, Mary.Hah-Nee of the Cliff Dwellers [by] Mary and Conrad Buff.1956Houghton Mifflin
Bulla, Clyde Robert.Indian Hill1963Crowell
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteLittle Wind1963Lyons & Carnahan
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteMorning Star,1963Lyons & Carnahan
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carse, RobertFriends of the wolf; a novel.1961Putnam
Chandler, Edna Walker.Charley Brave.1962A. Whitman
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Beckley-Cardy
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo Horse1961Nelson
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo kill1959Nelson
Christie, Caroline.Silver Heels : a story of Blackfeet Indians at Glacier National Park1958Winston
Clark, Ann (Nolan).Little Indian basket maker1957Melmont Pubs.
Clark, Ann NolanLittle Indian pottery1955Melmont
Clark, Ann Nolan.Medicine man's daughter1963Farrar, Straus
Clark, Electa.Osceola, young Seminole Indian.1965Bobbs-MerrillBibliography: p. 198.;
Clymer, EleanorChipmunk in the forest1965Atheneum Pubs.
Coatsworth, Elizabeth,Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poem/1960Macmillan,
Coatsworth, Elizabeth.Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poems1960Macmillan
Colver, Anne.Bread-and-butter Indian1964Holt
Conrader, Constance.Blue wampum.1958Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Cooper, James Feinmore.The last of the Mohicans1964Parents' Magazine
Culp, John H.The bright feathers.1965Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Nevin, Evelyn C.The river spirit and the mountain demons1965Van Nostrand
Davis, Russell G.Chief Joseph, war chief of the Nez Percâe1962McGraw-Hill
De Leeuw, CateuaFear in the forest1960T. NelsonA young orphan boy, whose father was killed by marauding Indians, manages to overcome his morbid fear of the forest when he joins a pack-horse train which travels through the dense forests of Ohio. ;
Dick, Trella Lamson.Bridger's boy1965Follett
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog1962DLM Teaching ResourcesShort tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog,1962Garrard Pub. Co.Short tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Stories from Alaska1961DLM Teaching ResourcesFolk tales representative of the northernmost state of the United States, from its two native peoples, the Indians and the Eskimos.;
Downey, Fairfax DavisGeneral Crook: Indian fighter.1957Westminster Press
DuBois, Theodora.Tiger burning bright.1964Ariel Bks.
Dwight, Allan.Guns at Quebec.1962Macmillan
Simms, William GilmoreThe Yemassee; a romance of Carolina.1964Twayne Publishers
Edmonds, Walter Dumaux.Wilderness clearing1963DoddIn a wilderness clearing in Western New York State when Indian attack threatened and the British attack was expected, sixteen year old Dick Mount proved to Maggie Gordon that he could meet peril.;
Emmons, Della Gould.Leschi of the Nisquallies.1965T. S. Denison
Wood, KerryThe great chief, Maskepetoon : warrior of the Crees1959Canadiana Co. Ltd.
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Fall, ThomasEdge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fall, Thomas.Edge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fernald, Helen Clark.The shadow of the Crooked Tree.1965McKay
Fiedler, ArkadyOrinoko.1961Iskry
Firethunder, Billy.Mother Meadowlark and Brother Snake : an Indian legend1963Holt
Fisher, Clay.Valley of the Bear : a novel of the North Plains Sioux1964Houghton
Foltz, Mary Jane.Awani1964Morrow
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Friskey, Margaret RichardsIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Children'sLOCATED IN PICTURE BOOK SECTION;
Friskey, MargaretIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Childrens Press0516035010 ; 0590424297 (Scholastic : pbk.) ; 9780516035017 ; 9780590424295
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Gage, Wilson.Secret of the Indian mound1958World Pub.
Garst, ShannonJames Bowie and his famous knife.1955J. MessnerA biography of a famous Indian fighter and reputed inventor of the defensive Bowie knife, from his childhood on the Louisiana bayou to his death defending the Alamo.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonRed eagle1959Hasting House
Garst, Shannon.Red Eagle1959Hastings House
Gendron, Val.Behind the Zuni masks1958Longmans
George, Jean Craighead.La tierra que habla / (paper)1959Ediciones, Alfaguara084410728X ; 9780844107288
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles. --1960Houghton Mifflin0395077354 : ; 9780395077351
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles.1960Houghton Mifflin
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage1960Houghton
Gipson, FredSavage Sam1962Harper & Row PublishersThe son of Old Yeller helps his owners escape from the Apaches in East Texas during the 1870's;
Gipson, Fred.Savage Sam.1963Pocket Books
Grant, BrucePancho : a dog of the plains1958World Pub
Gringhuis, Dirk.Young voyageur1955McGraw
Haines, Francis.Red Eagle and the Absaroka.1960Caxton Printers
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Harris, Christie.West with the White Chiefs1965Atheneum Pubs
Hayes, John F.Buckskin colonist1960Copp Clark
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann069830067X ; 9780698300675A fictional account of the first Indian tribes to hear and accept Christianity and of the great fires they lit to celebrate Easter.;
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann.
Hays, Wilma PitchfordEaster fires1959Coward-McCann
Hazletine, Alice IsabelRed man, white man; legends, tales and true accounts of the American Indians,1957Lothrop, Lee & Shepard
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heinzman, George.Only the earth and the mountains, a novel of the Cheyenne Nationa. --1964Macmillan
Henderson, Le GrandHow baseball began in Brooklyn1958AbingdonA humorous story giving one version "of how baseball was started. It all happened when Pieter Denbooms and his nine brothers met up with nine Canarsie Indians." McClurg. Book News.;
Henty, G. A.With Wolfe in Canada.1961WalkerWhen young James Walsham leaves England unexpectedly in 1755 and finds himself in America fighting in the French and Indian War, he discovers that he must still contend with the treachery of his old rival.;
Hill, MonicaRin Tin Tin and the lost Indian1956Simon and Schuster
Hoff, Syd.Little Chief1961Harper0004292669 ; 9780004292663An Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoff, SydLittle Chief,1961HarperAn Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoffine, Lyla.Jennie's Mandan bowl1960McKay
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man.1962Melmont Publishers
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man1962Melmont Pubs.
Howells, Anne MolloyCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo. The villagers, a novel.1964Southern Illinois University Press
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo1960Editorial Losada
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Saurel, Louis.Le Hardouin chez les Hurons1960âEditions FleurusPour enfants.;
Jackson, Helen HuntRamona, a story.1959Printed for the members of the Limited Editions Club at the Plantin Press
James, Harry ClebourneHopi Indian butterfly dance1959Melmont Pubs.
Karney, Beulah.The listening one.1962Day
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia.1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Thomas Y. CrowellCaptured by Comanches at fifteen, a sensitive Spaniard learns to accept their way of life and becomes a leader among them.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother.1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1962E. M. HaleAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kubaésta, VojtéechThe Day of the bison hunt.1962Bancroft & Co.Caption title.; Ill. signed: V. Kubasta.; Lower cover is a double-page which opens into a pop-up color illustration of an Indian village with tepees, a totem, and men in ceremonial costumes.;
La Farge, OliverLaughing Boy1957Houghton Mifflin00812416031 (Covercraft) ; 9780081241608
Lampman, Evelyn (Sibley)Navaho sister1956Doubleday
Lane, Neola Tracy.Secret of the silver spoons.1963Bobbs-MerrillPaul tries to establish his grandmother's true identity by locating the silver spoons she remembers hiding when she was a little girl.;
Lauritzen, Elizabeth M.Shush'ma,1964Caxton PrintersBibliography: p. 188.; The life and habits of a bear reflect her sensitivity to the loss of peace and harmony on the land that is home for her and the Navajo. Based on documented information.;
Hoffmann, EleanorThe charmstone1964McNally and LoftinShuku, son of Chief Islay of Helo, fights the plots of his wicked stepmother, Ojai, and her equally wicked son, Mogi.;
Leckie, RobertDanger at Mormon Crossing1959Simon and SchusterWhile on a camping and hunting trip in the Idaho mountains, Sandy Steele and his friends become involved in a mystery concerning their Indian guide.;
Lenski, LoisLittle Sioux girl,1958Lippincott
Lomask, Milton.Cross among the tomahawks1961Douleday
Longstreet, Stephen.War in the golden weather1965Doubleday
James, Harry ClebourneA day in Oraibi, a Hopi Indian village1959Melmont Pubs.
Stinetorf, Louise A.A charm for Paco's mother1965Day
James, Harry ClebourneA day with Honau, a Hopi Indian boy.1957Melmont Publishers
MacLeod, Robert.The medicine bull.1963Day
Marriott, Alice Lee.The black stone knife. Illustrated by Harvey Weiss.1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie : Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie, Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie: Kiowa captive1965McKay
McGaw, Jessie Brewer.Little Elk hunts buffalo : as Little Elk tells it in Indian picture writing1961T. Nelson
McGiffin, LeePony soldier.1961Dutton
McNamee, James.My Uncle Joe1963Viking
Molloy, Anne Stearns BakerCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Montgomery, Rutherford GeorgeThe capture of West Wind. --1962Duell, Sloan and Pearce
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded Books1556904673 ; 9781556904677Unabridged.; Narrated by Christina Moore; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, Scott.Island of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded BooksUnabridged.; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Dell
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin0395069629 ; 9780395069622Records the courage and self-reliance of an Indian girl who lived alone for eighteen years on an isolated island off the California coast when her tribe emigrated and she was left behind.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 12; Lexile Measure 1000; 1000; 06 07 08; 060; 012;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
Nicholson, John D.The white buffalo,1965Platt & Munk
Rhoads, Dorothy.The corn grows ripe1956VikingTigre, a twelve-year-old Mayan boy living in a modern-day village in Yucatâan, must learn to be a man when his father is injured.;
Conrad, JosephThe nigger of the "Narcissus"1965Printed by the Ward Ritchie Press for the members of the Limited Editions ClubLimited ed. of 1,500 copies, signed by the artist.; Issued in slipcase.; Newman & Wiche. Great and good books,; 372; Limited Editions Club. Bibliography of the fine books published by the Limited Editions Club, 1929-1985,; no. 372;
Allsopp, Joy.The tale of Teddy the toucan : a story for children1960Govt. Information Services"This story is one of a series of stories based on some of the legends of the Amerindian tribes of British Guiana.";
Parish, Peggy.Good hunting, Little Indian1962Young Scott Bks.
Patrick, Pearl HaleyO'po of the Omaha. Illustrated by Dan Jacobson.1957Caxton Printers
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Bks.
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Books
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Rainbow, Elizabeth.Concha and the silver star1965Duell
Ramâirez, Pablo.Wa O'Ka,1961Bobbs-MerrillA young Indian brave accomplishes three seemingly impossible tasks to win the chief's daughter for his bride.;
Ranney, Agnes V.Flash of Phantom Canyon.1963Criterion Bks
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of Tejas.1965New York Graphic Society Pubs.
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of the Tejas.1965New York Graphic Societ Pubs.
Reilly, Robert T.Massacre at Ash Hollow1960Bruce Pub. Co.
Ressler, Theodore Whitson.Treasury of American Indian tales1957Association
Richter, Conrad.The light in the forest.1963Bantam Books
Roberts, Helen M.Mission tales,1963Pacific Books
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1961Doubleday
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1963Fawcett Crest/Ballantine,0449213838 (pbk.) ; 9780449213834Saga of French and Indian war heroics in which Major Robert Rogers is the leader of the Rogers' Rangers.; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1010; 1010;
Robinson, Barbara.Across from Indian Shore1962Lothrop
Robinson, Barbara.Trace through the forest.1965Lothrop
Rowland, Florence Wightman.Pasquala of Santa Ynez Mission1961Walck, H.Z.
Davis, Russell.The Choctaw code1961Whittlesey House
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1961Scribner0553213296 (Bantam : pbk. : 1981) ; 0808519735 (Econoclad) ; 9780808519737While guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe Pathfinder1964Airmont Publishing Co., Inc.
Nelson, May.The Redbirds are flying1963Criterion Bks.
Steele, William O.The Year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Steele, William Owen.The year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Capron, Louis.The red war pole1963Bobbs
Tavo, Gus.The buffalo are running1960Knopf
Lauritzen, Jonreed.The legend of Billy Bluesage1961Little, Brown
Sandoz, Mari.The Story Catcher1963Westminster Press
Oberreich, Robert.The blood red belt1961Doubleday
Jones, Weyman.The talking leaf1965Dial Press
Clark, Margaret Goff.The mystery of the buried Indian mask1962Watts, F.
Surany, Anico.The golden frong1963Putnam
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hastings House
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hstings House
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Schultz, James WillardWith the Indians in the Rockies.1960Houghton MifflinThe adventures of Thomas Fox and Pitamakan, a Blackfoot Indian boy.;
Scott, PaulEliza and the Indian war pony,1961Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage1964Van Nostrand
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage.1964Van Nostrand
Shannon, Terry.Tyee's totem pole1955Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows.1963A. Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows1963WhitmanWakapoo, a Chumash Indian boy, finds the secret of courage when his peace loving people are attacked on their island home off the coast of Southern California.;
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala1958McClelland and Stewart0771081243 : ; 9780771081248
Simmons, Dawn Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Snedden, Genevra SissonDocas, Indian of Santa Clara.1958HeathBibliography: p. 187-189.; Through the eyes of Docas and his playmates one sees the coming of the white man to California and the establishment of one of its famous chain of missions.;
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Speare, Elizabeth George.Calico Captive1957Houghton MifflinDuring the French and Indian War, young Miriam is captured by Indians and taken to Montreal;
Steele, William O.Flaming arrows1957Harcourt, BraceAn Indian attack on a fort in the Tennessee wilderness makes young Chad Rabun realize that it is wrong to condemn one person for the misdeed of another. ;
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg : distributed by Holt
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg: distributed by Holt
Steffan, Jack.Mountain of fire : a novel.1959Day
Stevenson, Augusta.George Custer, boy of action.1963Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the great Indian fighter who died in the controversial Battle of Little Big Horn.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Strachan, Margaret Pitcairn.Cabins with window boxes1964I. Washburn
Steele, William O.The year of the bloody sevens.1963Harcourt, Brace & World
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571957World
Haig-Brown, Roderick LangmereThe whale people.1963Morrow
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Surany, Anico.The golden frog : illus. by Leonard Everett Fisher.1963Putnam
Tilghman, Zoe Agnes StrattonMaiom, the Cheyenne girl;1956Harlow Pub. Corp.
Tomerlin, John.Prisoner of the Iroquois.1965Dutton
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Medalla Newbery.; Tâitulo original: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Editorial noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084"Tâitulo original: Island of the blue dolphins"--t.p. verso.; Stranded on a beautiful isolated island off the coast of California, a young 19th century Indian girl spends 18 years, not only surviving through her courage and self-reliance, but also finding happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
Underhill, Ruth M.Antelope Singer1961Coward-McCann
Baker, Betty.The shaman's last raid1963Harper & Row
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Van Riper, GuernseyJim Thorpe, Indian athlete.1956Bobbs-Merrill
Vance, Marguerite.Esther Wheelwright, Indian captive.1964Dutton
Vestal, StanleyHappy hunting grounds.1963Lyons and Carnahan
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Webb, NancyMakema of the rain forest,1964Prentice-HallBibliographical references included in "Acknowledgments" (p. [3]);
Welch, Ronald C.Mohawk Valley.1958Criterion Books
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Criterion Bks.
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Oxford University Press0192710788 : ; 9780192710789
Wheeler, ArvilleWhite Squaw : the true story of Jennie Wiley.1958HeathA fictionalized account of the life of Jennie Sellards Wiley, who spent a year as an Indian captive in Kentucky and eventually escaped and returned to her husband in Virginia.;
Wilcox, Eleanor Reindollar.Cornhusk doll1956Dodd
Wilson, Charles Morrow.Crown Point : the destiny road1965McKay
Wilson, Hazel (Hutchins)His Indian brother1955E. M. HaleWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Hazel HutchinsHis Indian brother1955Houghton MifflinWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Holly.Snowbound in Hidden Valley1957Messner
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958FollettThe author: p189.; The great hunter, Gabe Stoner, asked eleven year old Whit Martin to go hunting with him. When he and Gabe ran into a party of Indians, Gabe was wounded and he and Whit were captured by the Indians and taken across the Ohio into Shawnee country. Whit and Gabe escaped from their captors and young Whit managed to survive and to help save the wounded hunter. (Publisher);
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958Follett
Worcester, Donald EmmetLone Hunter and the wild horses1959Walck, H.Z.
Worthylake, Mary M.Children of the seed gatherers.1964Melmont Publishers
Leiser, Harry W.The lost canyon of the Navajos1960Criterion Books
Lampman, Evelyn Sibley.The shy stegosaurus of Indian Springs1962Junior Literary guild : Doubleday
Ziner, Feenie.Dark pilgrim : the story of Squanto.1965Chilton Co.