Thursday, February 14, 2013

Public Lecture: Native American Misrepresentation in Books and Media

What are you doing on March 6, 2013, at 1:00 PM Pacific Time? If you're near Cal State Polytechnic University in Pomona, consider attending my lecture. It is open to the public, and there's no charge for it! I'll be speaking at the Bronco Student Center - Centaurus. Here's the flyer:


Sunday, February 10, 2013

THE STUPIDS STEP OUT; THE STUPIDS HAVE A BALL; GEORGE AND MARTHA, ENCORE

Upon learning that Champaign Public Library's 110 Books for Every Child included books with blackface and that stereotype American Indians, Creek author Durango Mendoza wrote that children and their families "could feel ambushed by the foul among the good."

I'm going to ask him if I can use that phrase as a label for any time that I write about a book in which a child--Native or not--might be ambushed by the foul in a book that has received much acclaim by others.

Today's post is about three of those books.

First is Harry Allard's The Stupids Step Out. Though the text never mentions American Indians, James Marshall decided to put Kitty, their dog (so named because they're stupid), in a headdress:



In The Stupids Have A Ball, Marshall presents Kitty in a headband with one feather (leaf?!) in it:



The Stupids series is very popular. Scholars who write about how best to engage reluctant readers point to these books as ones teachers should use. Teachers that use those two books with Native children are likely giving then more reasons to be reluctant to read! And anyone with insight into stereotyping and why it is wrong will have found the foul among the good that Durango Mendoza expressed.

We can do better! If The Stupids books were the last books on earth, we might have to use them, but they aren't. We can set them aside, can't we?

And while you're in the 'setting aside' mode, take a look at Marshall's George and Martha, Encore. In it, he's got George playing Indian...





Why would we, in 2013, use books that stereotype American Indians? Doing so affirms (or introduces) playing Indian, and we don't affirm or introduce playing ______ (fill in the blank), do we?

__________________
Stupids Step Out, first published in 1974, by Houghton Mifflin
Stupids Have A Ball, first published in 1978, by Houghton Mifflin
George and Martha, Encore, first published in 1973, by Houghton Mifflin





Thursday, February 07, 2013

International Book Giving Day

The people who established International Book Giving Day asked me to recommend books for their book giving project. Their post with recommended books went up today (Feb. 7, 2013):




See Birchbark House on the top left of the collage of book covers they created? I love the title of the page "More children should have the opportunity to read these books." Head over there to see other books on their list. Sign up to participate, too! They have several ways people can participate.

The international component of the project is important, because stereotypes of American Indians are everywhere, including children's books published in other countries. Take a look at a few of them.

Wednesday, February 06, 2013

Open Letter to Champaign Public Library Regarding "110 Books for Every Child"

February 6, 2013

Dear Librarians at Champaign Public Library,

While reading The News Gazette yesterday, I read that you had prepared a list of books called "110 Books for Every Child." When I read "every child," I wondered if you were thinking about all children in the area. Were you thinking about American Indian children, too? We are part of the Champaign-Urbana community.

When I clicked on the link and opened the list, I was glad to see some titles on it, like Bud Not Buddy and The Giver and Poppy. But I am disappointed that it also includes Little Town on the Prairie. 

On page 257, Laura is amongst the crowds gathered in the schoolhouse, waiting for the "Literary" (performance) to begin. Here's an excerpt:
Then up the center aisle came marching five black-faced men in raggedy-taggedy uniforms. White circles were around their eyes and their mouths were wide and red. Up onto the platform they marched, then facing forward in a row suddenly they all advanced, singing, "Oh, talk about your Mulligan Guards! These darkies can't be beat!"

The five men take the stage (p. 258):



Here's the text on that page, just above the illustration:
When the dancing stopped, the jokes began. The white-circled eyes rolled, the big red mouths blabbed questions and answers that were the funniest ever heard. Then there was music again, and even wilder dancing.

Darkies? Big red mouths?!

(Note: A reader pointed out that the following passages are not from the same book. Corrections are made as noted; Little House in the Big Woods is not on the library's list.Earlier in the book,  In Little House in the Big Woods, Laura and Mary listen to Pa tell them a story about how, when he was a little boy, he'd pretend he was hunting Indians (page 53):
When I was a little boy, not much bigger than Mary, I had to go every afternoon to find the cows in the woods and drive them home. My father told me never to play by the way, but to hurry and bring the cows home before dark, because there were bears and wolves and panthers in the woods.

One day I started earlier than usual, so I thought I did not need to hurry. There were so many things to see in the woods that I forgot that dark was coming. There were red squirrels in the trees, chipmunks scurrying through the leaves, and little rabbits playing games together in the open places. Little rabbits, you know, always have games together before they go to bed.

I began to play I was a mighty hunter, stalking the wild animals and the Indians. I played I was fighting the Indians, until all woods seemed full of wild men, and then all at once I heard the birds twittering 'good night.'

Stalking wild animals and Indians?!

I'm not calling for these books to be removed from the library, but I do think Little Town on the Prairie ought not be endorsed as a "good book" for "every child." I don't think its good for any child at all!

Imagine reading it aloud to an African American or an American Indian child. How would you manage those particular excerpts?

I know people who say that reading these books lets kids know that there was racism in America's past, but, isn't endorsing them in 2009 as "good books" a bad idea? Children should learn about racism in the past and present, too, but might that be better done in another way?

See--if you're reading this book aloud to a child, you're probably doing it in a way that will cause them to like the characters. And then you're going to interrupt the reading to explain that, essentially Pa was either a racist, or, engaged in racist thinking. It seems a better idea (to me) to select a book to enjoy that doesn't do that sort of thing.

I wonder how many people actually take time to explain those passages as racist?

My guess is that a lot of people just blow right past them, thereby inserting racist ideology into the minds of the children that are being read to, and/or affirming the already-existing racist ideology that has crept into that child's world view.

And---if a child is reading this book alone (without an adult to mediate it), how will that child make sense of those excerpts?

I have similar concerns about other books on the list and am sharing brief notes on them:

The Indian in the Cupboard is very popular, but it makes people into the playthings of children. This is especially troubling because of the identities of the characters. In it, you have a white child manipulating the life and death of an Indian man.

Island of the Blue Dolphins has stereotypes in it and the information it provides is outdated. Today, we know so much more about the people involved in this story. This book doesn't accurately portray them. Shouldn't we set it aside in favor of terrific stories that don't misrepresent someone, especially when that someone is a group for which most American have little substantive knowledge?

We keep recycling romantic and stereotyped ideas and images of American Indians. Maybe that is what makes it possible for a book like Walk Two Moons to win awards. It, unfortunately, has a great many stereotypes of American Indians in it.

As I noted earlier, I'm not asking you to remove the books from the library, but I do think their place on a list of "good" books ought to be reconsidered. Perhaps if they were removed from the list, you could replace them with award-winning books that provide children with accurate knowledge about American Indians. Given our proximity to the Great Lakes, Louise Erdrich's The Birchbark House and its sequels would be terrific additions to the list.

Sincerely,
Debbie Reese
American Indians in Children's Literature







Monday, February 04, 2013

The True Book of Little Eskimos

Have you ever visited the blog, Awful Library Books: Hoarding is not Collection Development? Mary Kelly and Holly Hibner are public librarians in Michigan. Their blog is about weeding.

On January 31, 2013, they loaded The True Book of Little Eskimos. Click on over to Awful Library Books to see some of the pages. The book was published in 1953. Using World Cat, I see that its in 148 libraries. Some of them are university libraries, which is fine, because in those libraries, they're probably being used for research. But some of them are in school and public libraries. Yikes! Remember... the pub year is 1953. That's over 50 years ago. Is it in your library? If it is, weed it today!




Julia Alvarez's RETURN TO SENDER

Yesterday, I started reading Julia Alvarez's Return to Sender. I'm taking a minute this morning to say a couple of things about it before I dash out the door for the morning.

First, here's what Alvarez says about it on her website:

The seed for the novel came when I got involved translating at local schools for the children of Mexican migrant workers who have now made their way up to Vermont. (And boosted our compromised Latino population!) These workers are now doing the milking on many of our dairy farms. Without them, many of our small farmers could not survive, as they, too, are being squeezed by the high cost of farming and a dearth of workers.

Seeing how baffled the Mexican children and their classmates were about how to understand this situation that had thrown us all together, I thought: we need a story to understand what is happening to us! The title comes from a dragnet operation that the Department of Homeland Security conducted in 2006, named, Return to Sender. Work places were raided and undocumented workers were seized. Their children were the biggest casualties of this operation -- left behind to be soothed and reassured until they could be finally reunited with their parents.


The boy on the cover is Tyler. His family owns one of the dairy farms that hires Mexican migrant workers. The girl is Mari. I had a lump in my throat as I read about these two young people trying to make sense of the world and each other's world, too. Alvarez has done a terrific job showing all three.

Part of Tyler's world is his life at school. There, one of Tyler's teachers is a woman named Ms. Ramirez. Sprinkled in the first part of the book are references to Mexican culture, and, references to American Indian culture. Tyler has learned about the Trail of Tears. I liked seeing it in Alvarez's book. Tyler's world is enlarged by his teachers.

More later...


Thursday, January 31, 2013

Herman Parish's AMELIA BEDELIA TALKS TURKEY

Over at the Greenwillow blog, there's a post about it being Amelia Bedelia's 50th birthday. Here's the tweet that sent me there:



For the most part, I love the word play in the Amelia Bedelia books. Obviously, kids do, too. But one of her books... Well, I wish that one of the things she did 'yesterday' was to pick up Amelia Bedelia Talks Turkey and give it a big heave-ho into the nearest garbage can, proclaiming loudly that she might get words mixed up sometime, but that she's no dummy and that she's sorry she had anything to do with the stereotypes of American Indians in Amelia Bedelia Talks Turkey. See what I mean?



Hey! Let's play with what we might have her say to the teacher. See the word bubble in the image below? What could we put in it?




A Peek at American Indians in Children's Fiction Published from 1955-1965

Nancy Larrick's article, The All White World of Children's Book, was published in 1965. I wondered what I might find if I did a search in the Children's Literature Comprehensive Database, using "Indian" as the search term and limiting the search for fiction published from 1955 to 1965. What, I wondered, were her options for books about American Indians? She was, for those who don't know, looking particularly at depictions of African Americans and was very troubled by what she found. Hence the title of her article "all white."

I ran the search and got 337 titles. I am pasting the results below. As you scroll through the list, you'll see duplicates and you'll see books that obviously don't belong on the list (for example, The Elephant that Galumphed).  

Some observations:

There aren't any authors on the list that I recognize as being Native.

I see that James Fenimore Cooper is on it several times. I'm thinking we can likely credit him with being responsible for a wide range of stereotyping. Good Indians, bad ones, ones who disappear into the mists of time...

Looks like there are several stories of whites who befriend Indians, and, stories of whites who are captured by Indians...

And how 'bout that Bread and Butter Indian by Anne Colver? Interesting title, don't you agree? Wondering what that one is about, I did a quick look-see at Google Books, learned that the illustrations are by Garth Williams! Here's the cover:



And here's the summary of the book:
A little girl named Barbara befriends a hungry Indian, offering him the bread and butter. Later she is kidnaped by a strange Indian. The story describes how the "bread-and-butter" Indian comes to her rescue.
What do you think? Is that Indian on the cover the hungry one? Or the strange one!

Some books on the list make me shudder because they are over-the-top in how they present Native characters (borrowing Rudine Sims Bishop's words about early books about African Americans) as objects of ridicule. Let's take a look at a few of them.

Check out Syd Hoff's Little Chief, the lonely Indian boy with an upside-down feather who finds friends among a wagon load of white kids:



Little Chief was/is an early reader. I don't think its still being published. Thank goodness for that, but believe it or not, Benchley's Red Fox and his Canoe, illustrated by Arnold Lobel, is still being marketed and used as an early reader. Here's an illustration from Red Fox and his Canoe:




Another one still in publication is Good Hunting, Little Indian by Peggy Parrish. But wait! The title is now Good Hunting, Blue Sky! I'll have to see if I can find the older copy so I can compare text and illustrations. For now, here's the covers. The original publication was in 1962, illustrated by Leonard Weisgard. The one with a new title has new illustrations, by James Watts.




Here's a page from inside Good Hunting, Blue Sky:



I'll wrap this up for now and do more analytical work with the list. One thing I'll probably do for a more closely aligned comparison, is limit the search to the specific years of Larrick's study. She looked at books published in 1962, 1963, and 1964.

Before I close, though, I'm going to suggest that no child in your classroom or library gains anything useful by reading Little Chief or Good Hunting, Blue Sky.  Please consider setting them aside.

Sources cited:

Bishop, Rudine Sims. (2012). "Reflections on the Development of African American Children's Literature," Journal of Children's Literature, 38(2), pp. 5-13.

Larrick, Nancy. "The All White World of Children's Books," Saturday Review, September 11, 1965, pp. 63-65+
________________________________________________


CLCD Search

Use your browser's save and print functions to save or print this report.
Use the Back button to return to your search results.Search was for: The word Indian (All Fields).
Singular and plural forms were searched.
Search restricted to books published between 1955 and 1965.
Only works of fiction were retrieved.

AUTHORTITLEYEARPUBLISHERISBNANNOTATIONS
Harrington, M. R.The Indians of New Jersey; Dickon among the Lenapes,1963Rutgers University PressFirst ed. published in 1938 under title: Dickon among the Lenape Indians.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe deerslayer : or, The first war-path1962Collier Books
Stoutenburg, Adrien.The mud ponies : based on a Pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Kendall, Lace.The mud ponies : based on a pawnee Indian myth1963Coward-McCann
Ward, Nanda Weedon.The elephant that ga-lumphed,1959Ariel Books.After a series of misadventures a noisy baby Indian elephant learns to walk quietly. Grades 1-3.;
Adams, AudreyKarankawa boy.1965Naylor Co.
Adams, Audrey.Karankawa boy.1965Naylor
Allen, T. D.Tall as great standing rock.1963Westminster Press
Allen, Terry.Tall as great standing rock1963Westminster
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571956ScribnerWhile guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James Fenimore.The deerslayer, or, The first warpath1963New American Library
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1957Washington Square Press
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1958Holiday
Annixter, Jane.Buffalo chief1963E. M. Hale
Annixter, Jane.Windigo1963Holiday House
Armer, Laura (Adams)Waterless mountain1963D. McKay Co.
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959David McKay
Armer, Laura Adams.Waterless mountain1959McKay
Arnold, Elliott.White Falcon1958Knopf
Arntson, Herbert E.Two guns in old Oregon1964Watts, F.
Whipple, Mary AnneThe first Californians1962Shinozaki ShorinTitle on cover: The first Californian.;
Overholser, Wayne D.The Meeker Massacre,1964Cowles0402141016 ; 9780402141013Two boys, one Indian and one white, become involved in the growing conflict between an inflexible Indian agent and a Ute tribe.;
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-death1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Killer-of-Death.1963Harper & Row
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse1962Harper & Row0005091829 ; 9780005091821
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper0060203412 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203412A young Indian boy, too young to join the older boys in part of the New Year celebration, celebrates his own way with his family.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 2; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 430; 0430; 00 01 02; 020; 002;
Baker, Betty.Little Runner of the longhouse.1962Harper
Baker, BettyWalk the world's rim.1965Harper & Row0060203811 (lib. bdg.) ; 9780060203818Bibliog; As they journey to Mexico, Chakoh, a young Indian boy, and Esteban, a Spanish Negro slave, become friends and teach each other their ways;
Baker, Betty.Walk the world's rim1965Harper & Row0064400263 ; 9780064400268Bibliography: p. [169];
Balch, GlennLittle Hawk and the free horses.1957Crowell
Balch, GlennSpotted horse.1961Crowell
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Baldwin, Clara.Little Tuck.1959DoubledayAn undersized frontier lad, anxious to grow up and share the chores and fun of his big brothers, catches his own turkey, helps shear sheep, finds honey, befriends an Indian, and kills a bobcat.;
Ball, ZacharyJoe Panther1961E. M. HaleIn an endeavor to earn money for school, an industrious Seminole becomes a deck hand on a tourist boat and accidently is involved in a smuggling ring.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bannon, Laura.Hop-High, the goat.1960Bobbs-MerrillA Navajo Indian family comes back from town with a new stove and a naughty, spoiled goat that causes many troubles before he becomes useful as leader of the flock of sheep.;
Bealer, Alex W.Picture-skin story1957Holiday
Beatty, PatriciaIndian canoe-maker1960Caxton Printers
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beckhard, Arthur J.Black Hawk.1957J. MessnerIncludes bibliography.; A biography of Black Hawk, the Sauk Indian who became chief of his tribe in 1788 and whose refusal to yield his tribal lands to the white man resulted in the Black Hawk War.;
Beebe, B. F.Coyote, come home.1963D. McKay Co.A coyote, orphaned as a pup, is rescued and befriended by an old Apache seeking companionship, and provides the aged Indian with loyalty and affection which protects them both.;
Beebe, Burdetta Faye.Chestnut cub1963McKay
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe / (paper)1964Harper & Row0064440753 ; 9780064440752A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Lower Grade; Book Level 2.2; Accelerated Reader Points 0.5; Accelerated Vocabulary, Recorded Voice Quizzes; 00 01 02 03; 022; 000; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level K-2; Reading Level 3; Title Point Value 2; Lexile Measure 260; 0260; 00 01 02; 030; 002;
Benchley, Nathaniel.Red fox and his canoe1964Harper & Row0060204761 ; 9780060204761A young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforeseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe.1964Harper & RowA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Benchley, NathanielRed fox and his canoe1964Scholastic Book ServicesA young Indian boy receives a larger canoe along with some unforseen complications.;
Berry, Erick.Valiant captive ...1962Chilton Co.
Berry, ErickValiant captive; a story of Margaret Eames, captured in 1676 by the Indians from the New Settlement, which later became Framingham, Massachusetts1963Chilton
Booker, Jim.Trail to Oklahoma1959Broadman Press
Borland, Hal GlenWhen the legends die. (paper)1963Lippincott0553113380 ; 9780553113389
Borland, Hal Glen.When the legends die1963Lippincott039700303X: ; 9780397003037
Borland, Hal, GlenWhen the legends die1963Lippincott0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1963Bantam Books
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963Lippincott
Borland, HalWhen the legends die.1963LippincottAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0553226428 (pbk.) ; 9780553257380 ; 9780553226423"A Bantam Starfire book."; An orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1964Bantam Books0812416945 (Cover Craft) ; 0553257382 (pbk.) ; 0881030570 (Econo-clad) ; 0881030570 (Econoclad) ; 9780812416947 ; 9780553257380 ; 9780881030570 ; 9780881030570Cover: A Bantam starfire book.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Upper Grade; Book Level 5.2; Accelerated Reader Points 13; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 09 10 11 12; 052; 013; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 20; Lexile Measure 850; 0850; 06 07 08; 060; 020;
Borland, HalWhen the legends die1965Bantam BooksAn orphaned Ute Indian boy wins stardom on the rodeo circuit, but becomes disillusioned by the new ways and searches for his identity in the old ways of his ancestors.;
Bowers, Gwendolyn.Journey for Jemima.1960Walck, H.Z.
Breedlove, Caroline H.Billy Black Lamb1958U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs"Developed in the Workshop in Navajo Education, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Arizona, May 26-June 6, 1958.";
Brick, John.Captive of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Brick, John.Captives of the Senecas.1964Duell
Brick, John.Eagle of Niagara; the story of David Harper and his Indian captivity.1955Doubleday
Brick, John.Tomahawk trail.1962Duell
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud : the Navajo boy1957Viking
Buff, Mary (Marsh)Dancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, MaryDancing Cloud, the Navajo boy.1957Viking Press
Buff, Mary.Hah-Nee of the Cliff Dwellers [by] Mary and Conrad Buff.1956Houghton Mifflin
Bulla, Clyde Robert.Indian Hill1963Crowell
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto.1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Bulla, Clyde Robert.John Billington, friend of Squanto1956CrowellA young Pilgrim boy is always causing trouble for Plymouth Colony until one day his mischief results in more friendly relations with the Indians.;
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteLittle Wind1963Lyons & Carnahan
Butterfield, Marguerite AntoinetteMorning Star,1963Lyons & Carnahan
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carroll, RuthTough Enough's Indians,1960H. Z. WalckWhile Pa is off fighting a forest fire, Beanie and his brothers and sisters go off to hunt fire-wood, find refuge from the fire under a waterfall, and seek help from a Cherokee Indian family.;
Carse, RobertFriends of the wolf; a novel.1961Putnam
Chandler, Edna Walker.Charley Brave.1962A. Whitman
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Beckley-Cardy
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Chandler, Edna Walker.Cowboy Sam and the Indians1962Benefic Press
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo Horse1961Nelson
Christensen, Gardell Dano.Buffalo kill1959Nelson
Christie, Caroline.Silver Heels : a story of Blackfeet Indians at Glacier National Park1958Winston
Clark, Ann (Nolan).Little Indian basket maker1957Melmont Pubs.
Clark, Ann NolanLittle Indian pottery1955Melmont
Clark, Ann Nolan.Medicine man's daughter1963Farrar, Straus
Clark, Electa.Osceola, young Seminole Indian.1965Bobbs-MerrillBibliography: p. 198.;
Clymer, EleanorChipmunk in the forest1965Atheneum Pubs.
Coatsworth, Elizabeth,Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poem/1960Macmillan,
Coatsworth, Elizabeth.Indian encounters : an anthology of stories and poems1960Macmillan
Colver, Anne.Bread-and-butter Indian1964Holt
Conrader, Constance.Blue wampum.1958Duell, Sloan and Pearce
Cooper, James Feinmore.The last of the Mohicans1964Parents' Magazine
Culp, John H.The bright feathers.1965Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Nevin, Evelyn C.The river spirit and the mountain demons1965Van Nostrand
Davis, Russell G.Chief Joseph, war chief of the Nez Percâe1962McGraw-Hill
De Leeuw, CateuaFear in the forest1960T. NelsonA young orphan boy, whose father was killed by marauding Indians, manages to overcome his morbid fear of the forest when he joins a pack-horse train which travels through the dense forests of Ohio. ;
Dick, Trella Lamson.Bridger's boy1965Follett
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog1962DLM Teaching ResourcesShort tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Once there was a dog,1962Garrard Pub. Co.Short tales about dogs from the folklore of Poland, Africa, Korea, Yucatan, China, and the American Indian.;
Dolch, Edward W.Stories from Alaska1961DLM Teaching ResourcesFolk tales representative of the northernmost state of the United States, from its two native peoples, the Indians and the Eskimos.;
Downey, Fairfax DavisGeneral Crook: Indian fighter.1957Westminster Press
DuBois, Theodora.Tiger burning bright.1964Ariel Bks.
Dwight, Allan.Guns at Quebec.1962Macmillan
Simms, William GilmoreThe Yemassee; a romance of Carolina.1964Twayne Publishers
Edmonds, Walter Dumaux.Wilderness clearing1963DoddIn a wilderness clearing in Western New York State when Indian attack threatened and the British attack was expected, sixteen year old Dick Mount proved to Maggie Gordon that he could meet peril.;
Emmons, Della Gould.Leschi of the Nisquallies.1965T. S. Denison
Wood, KerryThe great chief, Maskepetoon : warrior of the Crees1959Canadiana Co. Ltd.
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Evans, KatherineOne good deed deserves another.1964A. WhitmanA story of a robber who plans to repay a good deed with evil, but who is tricked by a small boy, based on a theme that is common in animal tales told by Indians of the Southwest and Mexico.;
Fall, ThomasEdge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fall, Thomas.Edge of manhood1964Dial Press
Fernald, Helen Clark.The shadow of the Crooked Tree.1965McKay
Fiedler, ArkadyOrinoko.1961Iskry
Firethunder, Billy.Mother Meadowlark and Brother Snake : an Indian legend1963Holt
Fisher, Clay.Valley of the Bear : a novel of the North Plains Sioux1964Houghton
Foltz, Mary Jane.Awani1964Morrow
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George Cory.Indian uprising1962Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Franklin, George CoryPioneer horse1960Houghton
Friskey, Margaret RichardsIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Children'sLOCATED IN PICTURE BOOK SECTION;
Friskey, MargaretIndian Two Feet and his horse1959Childrens Press0516035010 ; 0590424297 (Scholastic : pbk.) ; 9780516035017 ; 9780590424295
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Gage, Wilson.Secret of the Indian mound1958World Pub.
Garst, ShannonJames Bowie and his famous knife.1955J. MessnerA biography of a famous Indian fighter and reputed inventor of the defensive Bowie knife, from his childhood on the Louisiana bayou to his death defending the Alamo.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonJohn Jewitt's adventure.1955Houghton MifflinBased on the journal of John Jewitt, published in 1807.;
Garst, ShannonRed eagle1959Hasting House
Garst, Shannon.Red Eagle1959Hastings House
Gendron, Val.Behind the Zuni masks1958Longmans
George, Jean Craighead.La tierra que habla / (paper)1959Ediciones, Alfaguara084410728X ; 9780844107288
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles. --1960Houghton Mifflin0395077354 : ; 9780395077351
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage / by Janice Holt Giles.1960Houghton Mifflin
Giles, Janice Holt.Johnny Osage1960Houghton
Gipson, FredSavage Sam1962Harper & Row PublishersThe son of Old Yeller helps his owners escape from the Apaches in East Texas during the 1870's;
Gipson, Fred.Savage Sam.1963Pocket Books
Grant, BrucePancho : a dog of the plains1958World Pub
Gringhuis, Dirk.Young voyageur1955McGraw
Haines, Francis.Red Eagle and the Absaroka.1960Caxton Printers
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse at the stampede1961Holt
Hall, Gordon Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Harris, Christie.West with the White Chiefs1965Atheneum Pubs
Hayes, John F.Buckskin colonist1960Copp Clark
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann069830067X ; 9780698300675A fictional account of the first Indian tribes to hear and accept Christianity and of the great fires they lit to celebrate Easter.;
Hays, Wilma Pitchford.Easter fires1959Coward-McCann.
Hays, Wilma PitchfordEaster fires1959Coward-McCann
Hazletine, Alice IsabelRed man, white man; legends, tales and true accounts of the American Indians,1957Lothrop, Lee & Shepard
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heiderstadt, Dorothy.Marie Tanglehair1965McKay
Heinzman, George.Only the earth and the mountains, a novel of the Cheyenne Nationa. --1964Macmillan
Henderson, Le GrandHow baseball began in Brooklyn1958AbingdonA humorous story giving one version "of how baseball was started. It all happened when Pieter Denbooms and his nine brothers met up with nine Canarsie Indians." McClurg. Book News.;
Henty, G. A.With Wolfe in Canada.1961WalkerWhen young James Walsham leaves England unexpectedly in 1755 and finds himself in America fighting in the French and Indian War, he discovers that he must still contend with the treachery of his old rival.;
Hill, MonicaRin Tin Tin and the lost Indian1956Simon and Schuster
Hoff, Syd.Little Chief1961Harper0004292669 ; 9780004292663An Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoff, SydLittle Chief,1961HarperAn Indian boy's kindness encourages a group of frontiersmen to settle in the same green valley as the Indians.;
Hoffine, Lyla.Jennie's Mandan bowl1960McKay
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man.1962Melmont Publishers
Hood, Flora Mae.Something for the medicine man1962Melmont Pubs.
Howells, Anne MolloyCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier goes exploring.1963Benefic PressDan Frontier helps Ranger Jack Finley explore the wooded land inhabited by Indians near the Ohio River.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Hurley, William.Dan Frontier scouts with the Army.1962Benefic PressDan Frontier becomes an army scout when Indians threaten to attack Fort Detroit.;
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo. The villagers, a novel.1964Southern Illinois University Press
Icaza, JorgeHuasipungo1960Editorial Losada
Furman, A. L.Young readers nature stories.1959Lantern PressNine short stories about animals, like coyotes and raccoons, or men in encounters with them, as an Indian boy in a buffalo hunt, a ranch boy seeking to separate the ranch's horses from a band of wild horses, or a boy who cared for an injured sea gull.;
Saurel, Louis.Le Hardouin chez les Hurons1960âEditions FleurusPour enfants.;
Jackson, Helen HuntRamona, a story.1959Printed for the members of the Limited Editions Club at the Plantin Press
James, Harry ClebourneHopi Indian butterfly dance1959Melmont Pubs.
Karney, Beulah.The listening one.1962Day
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia. --1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia.1965Crowell
Keith, HaroldKomantcia1965Thomas Y. CrowellCaptured by Comanches at fifteen, a sensitive Spaniard learns to accept their way of life and becomes a leader among them.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother.1957Holiday HouseAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kjelgaard, JimWolf Brother1962E. M. HaleAn Apache brave who has been educated among the white men returns to his tribe, now confined to the reservation, and is forced, by an unfortunate meeting with an American Army sergeant, to take refuge with an infamous renegade band.;
Kubaésta, VojtéechThe Day of the bison hunt.1962Bancroft & Co.Caption title.; Ill. signed: V. Kubasta.; Lower cover is a double-page which opens into a pop-up color illustration of an Indian village with tepees, a totem, and men in ceremonial costumes.;
La Farge, OliverLaughing Boy1957Houghton Mifflin00812416031 (Covercraft) ; 9780081241608
Lampman, Evelyn (Sibley)Navaho sister1956Doubleday
Lane, Neola Tracy.Secret of the silver spoons.1963Bobbs-MerrillPaul tries to establish his grandmother's true identity by locating the silver spoons she remembers hiding when she was a little girl.;
Lauritzen, Elizabeth M.Shush'ma,1964Caxton PrintersBibliography: p. 188.; The life and habits of a bear reflect her sensitivity to the loss of peace and harmony on the land that is home for her and the Navajo. Based on documented information.;
Hoffmann, EleanorThe charmstone1964McNally and LoftinShuku, son of Chief Islay of Helo, fights the plots of his wicked stepmother, Ojai, and her equally wicked son, Mogi.;
Leckie, RobertDanger at Mormon Crossing1959Simon and SchusterWhile on a camping and hunting trip in the Idaho mountains, Sandy Steele and his friends become involved in a mystery concerning their Indian guide.;
Lenski, LoisLittle Sioux girl,1958Lippincott
Lomask, Milton.Cross among the tomahawks1961Douleday
Longstreet, Stephen.War in the golden weather1965Doubleday
James, Harry ClebourneA day in Oraibi, a Hopi Indian village1959Melmont Pubs.
Stinetorf, Louise A.A charm for Paco's mother1965Day
James, Harry ClebourneA day with Honau, a Hopi Indian boy.1957Melmont Publishers
MacLeod, Robert.The medicine bull.1963Day
Marriott, Alice Lee.The black stone knife. Illustrated by Harvey Weiss.1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeBlack stone knife1957Crowell
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie : Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie, Kiowa captive.1965McKay
Marriott, Alice LeeIndian Annie: Kiowa captive1965McKay
McGaw, Jessie Brewer.Little Elk hunts buffalo : as Little Elk tells it in Indian picture writing1961T. Nelson
McGiffin, LeePony soldier.1961Dutton
McNamee, James.My Uncle Joe1963Viking
Molloy, Anne Stearns BakerCaptain Waymouth's Indians.1956Hastings HousePublished in 1968 under title: Five kidnapped Indians.;
Montgomery, Rutherford GeorgeThe capture of West Wind. --1962Duell, Sloan and Pearce
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded Books1556904673 ; 9781556904677Unabridged.; Narrated by Christina Moore; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, Scott.Island of the blue dolphins [sound recording]1960Recorded BooksUnabridged.; Tells the true story of an American Indian girl who lived alone on an island for eighteen years.;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa Isla de los Delfines Azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Translation of: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Dell
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin0395069629 ; 9780395069622Records the courage and self-reliance of an Indian girl who lived alone for eighteen years on an isolated island off the California coast when her tribe emigrated and she was left behind.; Reading Counts-Scholastic; Interest Level 6-8; Reading Level 6; Title Point Value 12; Lexile Measure 1000; 1000; 06 07 08; 060; 012;
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
O'Dell, ScottIsland of the Blue Dolphins.1960Houghton Mifflin
Nicholson, John D.The white buffalo,1965Platt & Munk
Rhoads, Dorothy.The corn grows ripe1956VikingTigre, a twelve-year-old Mayan boy living in a modern-day village in Yucatâan, must learn to be a man when his father is injured.;
Conrad, JosephThe nigger of the "Narcissus"1965Printed by the Ward Ritchie Press for the members of the Limited Editions ClubLimited ed. of 1,500 copies, signed by the artist.; Issued in slipcase.; Newman & Wiche. Great and good books,; 372; Limited Editions Club. Bibliography of the fine books published by the Limited Editions Club, 1929-1985,; no. 372;
Allsopp, Joy.The tale of Teddy the toucan : a story for children1960Govt. Information Services"This story is one of a series of stories based on some of the legends of the Amerindian tribes of British Guiana.";
Parish, Peggy.Good hunting, Little Indian1962Young Scott Bks.
Patrick, Pearl HaleyO'po of the Omaha. Illustrated by Dan Jacobson.1957Caxton Printers
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Bks.
Provan, Eldoris Angel.Drummer for the Americans.1965Chilton Books
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Radau, Hanns.Illampu : adventure in the Andes1961Abelard-Schuman
Rainbow, Elizabeth.Concha and the silver star1965Duell
Ramâirez, Pablo.Wa O'Ka,1961Bobbs-MerrillA young Indian brave accomplishes three seemingly impossible tasks to win the chief's daughter for his bride.;
Ranney, Agnes V.Flash of Phantom Canyon.1963Criterion Bks
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of Tejas.1965New York Graphic Society Pubs.
Ray, Ophelia.Daughter of the Tejas.1965New York Graphic Societ Pubs.
Reilly, Robert T.Massacre at Ash Hollow1960Bruce Pub. Co.
Ressler, Theodore Whitson.Treasury of American Indian tales1957Association
Richter, Conrad.The light in the forest.1963Bantam Books
Roberts, Helen M.Mission tales,1963Pacific Books
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1961Doubleday
Roberts, Kenneth LewisNorthwest passage1963Fawcett Crest/Ballantine,0449213838 (pbk.) ; 9780449213834Saga of French and Indian war heroics in which Major Robert Rogers is the leader of the Rogers' Rangers.; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1010; 1010;
Robinson, Barbara.Across from Indian Shore1962Lothrop
Robinson, Barbara.Trace through the forest.1965Lothrop
Rowland, Florence Wightman.Pasquala of Santa Ynez Mission1961Walck, H.Z.
Davis, Russell.The Choctaw code1961Whittlesey House
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans1961Scribner0553213296 (Bantam : pbk. : 1981) ; 0808519735 (Econoclad) ; 9780808519737While guiding a small party of English settlers to the protection of a fort during the French and Indian War, Hawkeye, a frontier scout, and his two Indian friends, the remaining braves of the Mohican tribe, struggle against the evils of Uncas who desires a white maiden for his wife.;
Cooper, James FenimoreThe Pathfinder1964Airmont Publishing Co., Inc.
Nelson, May.The Redbirds are flying1963Criterion Bks.
Steele, William O.The Year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Steele, William Owen.The year of the Bloody Sevens1963Harcourt
Capron, Louis.The red war pole1963Bobbs
Tavo, Gus.The buffalo are running1960Knopf
Lauritzen, Jonreed.The legend of Billy Bluesage1961Little, Brown
Sandoz, Mari.The Story Catcher1963Westminster Press
Oberreich, Robert.The blood red belt1961Doubleday
Jones, Weyman.The talking leaf1965Dial Press
Clark, Margaret Goff.The mystery of the buried Indian mask1962Watts, F.
Surany, Anico.The golden frong1963Putnam
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Lobdell, Helen.The fort in the forest1963Houghton
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Haig-Brown, Roderick Langmere HaigThe whale people1963Morrow
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hastings House
Hollmann, Clide.The eagle feather1963Hstings House
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Sandoz, MariThe horsecatcher.1957Westminster PressUnable to kill, a young Cheyenne is scorned by his tribe when he chooses to become a horse catcher rather than a warrior.;
Schultz, James WillardWith the Indians in the Rockies.1960Houghton MifflinThe adventures of Thomas Fox and Pitamakan, a Blackfoot Indian boy.;
Scott, PaulEliza and the Indian war pony,1961Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage1964Van Nostrand
Scull, Florence D.Bear teeth for courage.1964Van Nostrand
Shannon, Terry.Tyee's totem pole1955Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows.1963A. Whitman
Shannon, Terry.Wakapoo and the flying arrows1963WhitmanWakapoo, a Chumash Indian boy, finds the secret of courage when his peace loving people are attacked on their island home off the coast of Southern California.;
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala.1958Little, Brown
Sharp, Edith Lambert.Nkwala1958McClelland and Stewart0771081243 : ; 9780771081248
Simmons, Dawn Langley.Peter Jumping Horse1961Holt
Snedden, Genevra SissonDocas, Indian of Santa Clara.1958HeathBibliography: p. 187-189.; Through the eyes of Docas and his playmates one sees the coming of the white man to California and the establishment of one of its famous chain of missions.;
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Sorensen, Edna Jennings.Felipe's long journey : a story of the Andes ; pictures by Ezra Jack Keats.1961Watts F.
Speare, Elizabeth George.Calico Captive1957Houghton MifflinDuring the French and Indian War, young Miriam is captured by Indians and taken to Montreal;
Steele, William O.Flaming arrows1957Harcourt, BraceAn Indian attack on a fort in the Tennessee wilderness makes young Chad Rabun realize that it is wrong to condemn one person for the misdeed of another. ;
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg : distributed by Holt
Steele, William O.Wayah of the Real People1964Colonial Williamsburg: distributed by Holt
Steffan, Jack.Mountain of fire : a novel.1959Day
Stevenson, Augusta.George Custer, boy of action.1963Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the great Indian fighter who died in the controversial Battle of Little Big Horn.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Israel Putnam, fearless boy.1959Bobbs-MerrillA biography of an American patriot who fought in both the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars, describing his boyhood and youth on the Massachusetts frontier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Kit Carson, boy trapper.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the frontier trapper, hunter, Indian fighter, scout, and soldier.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Sam Houston, boy chieftain.1962Bobbs-MerrillA biography of the man who helped make Texas a part of the United States, emphasizing his boyhood in Virginia and his friendship with the Cherokee Indians.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Stevenson, Augusta.Squanto, young Indian hunter.1962Bobbs-MerrillThe boyhood of the Wampanoag Indian who lived for a time in England and then returned to New England where he helped the Pilgrim settlers in Plymouth.;
Strachan, Margaret Pitcairn.Cabins with window boxes1964I. Washburn
Steele, William O.The year of the bloody sevens.1963Harcourt, Brace & World
Cooper, James FenimoreThe last of the Mohicans : a narrative of 17571957World
Haig-Brown, Roderick LangmereThe whale people.1963Morrow
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Barbary, James.The fort in the wilderness; an adventure in history.1965NortonFirst published in England under title: The fort in the forest.; An English officer, in command of a fort on the Canadian frontier during Pontiac's uprising, is captured by the Indians, returned to the English as a hostage, but comes back later to convince Pontiac of French betrayal.;
Surany, Anico.The golden frog : illus. by Leonard Everett Fisher.1963Putnam
Tilghman, Zoe Agnes StrattonMaiom, the Cheyenne girl;1956Harlow Pub. Corp.
Tomerlin, John.Prisoner of the Iroquois.1965Dutton
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Noguer8427931085 ; 9788427931084Medalla Newbery.; Tâitulo original: Island of the Blue Dolphins.; Left alone on a beautiful but isolated island off the coast of California, a young Indian girl spends eighteen years, not only merely surviving through her enormous courage and self-reliance, but also finding a measure of happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
O'Dell, ScottLa isla de los delfines azules1964Editorial noguer8427931085 (pbk.) ; 9788427931084"Tâitulo original: Island of the blue dolphins"--t.p. verso.; Stranded on a beautiful isolated island off the coast of California, a young 19th century Indian girl spends 18 years, not only surviving through her courage and self-reliance, but also finding happiness in her solitary life.; Accelerated Reader; Interest Level Middle Grade; Book Level 5.4; Accelerated Reader Points 6; Accelerated Vocabulary, Literacy Skills; 04 05 06 07 08; 054; 006; Lexile, MetaMetrics, Inc.; Lexile Measure 1090; 1090;
Underhill, Ruth M.Antelope Singer1961Coward-McCann
Baker, Betty.The shaman's last raid1963Harper & Row
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Carlson, Natalie Savage.The Tomahawk family.1960HarperAn Indian girl is anxious to do everything her teacher at school tells her, in order to be a good American, but her stubborn brother and her old fashioned grandmother present problems.;
Van Riper, GuernseyJim Thorpe, Indian athlete.1956Bobbs-Merrill
Vance, Marguerite.Esther Wheelwright, Indian captive.1964Dutton
Vestal, StanleyHappy hunting grounds.1963Lyons and Carnahan
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Waltrip, Lela.Quiet boy1961Longmans
Webb, NancyMakema of the rain forest,1964Prentice-HallBibliographical references included in "Acknowledgments" (p. [3]);
Welch, Ronald C.Mohawk Valley.1958Criterion Books
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Criterion Bks.
Welch, RonaldMohawk Valley1958Oxford University Press0192710788 : ; 9780192710789
Wheeler, ArvilleWhite Squaw : the true story of Jennie Wiley.1958HeathA fictionalized account of the life of Jennie Sellards Wiley, who spent a year as an Indian captive in Kentucky and eventually escaped and returned to her husband in Virginia.;
Wilcox, Eleanor Reindollar.Cornhusk doll1956Dodd
Wilson, Charles Morrow.Crown Point : the destiny road1965McKay
Wilson, Hazel (Hutchins)His Indian brother1955E. M. HaleWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Hazel HutchinsHis Indian brother1955Houghton MifflinWhen his father's return from Boston with the family is delayed, young Brad, left to care for their new wilderness home in Maine, must depend on the Indians for survival.;
Wilson, Holly.Snowbound in Hidden Valley1957Messner
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958FollettThe author: p189.; The great hunter, Gabe Stoner, asked eleven year old Whit Martin to go hunting with him. When he and Gabe ran into a party of Indians, Gabe was wounded and he and Whit were captured by the Indians and taken across the Ohio into Shawnee country. Whit and Gabe escaped from their captors and young Whit managed to survive and to help save the wounded hunter. (Publisher);
Witten, Herbert.Escape from the Shawnees1958Follett
Worcester, Donald EmmetLone Hunter and the wild horses1959Walck, H.Z.
Worthylake, Mary M.Children of the seed gatherers.1964Melmont Publishers
Leiser, Harry W.The lost canyon of the Navajos1960Criterion Books
Lampman, Evelyn Sibley.The shy stegosaurus of Indian Springs1962Junior Literary guild : Doubleday
Ziner, Feenie.Dark pilgrim : the story of Squanto.1965Chilton Co.



Sunday, January 27, 2013

GIRL MEETS BOY, edited by Kelly Milner Halls

In the closing pages of Girl Meets Boy: Because There Are Two Sides to Every Story, we learn that Joseph Bruchac wrote "Falling Down to See the Moon" and that after reading his story, Cynthia Leitich Smith wrote "Mooning Over Broken Stars."

Joe and Cyn are two of my favorite writers. I recognize the places they write about, and as a Native kid/teen who grew up at Nambe Pueblo, I recognize the characters they developed for their stories in Girl Meets Boy. I know/knew guys like Bobby Wildcat and girls like Nancy Whitepath. They were my classmates when I was in school at Pojoaque (a public school that serves four different pueblos).

And they were my students when I taught Native kids in New Mexico and Oklahoma. Nancy Whitepath is a basketball player. When I taught at Santa Fe Indian School, my husband and I went to a lot of basketball games, cheering for our students. SFIS has won many state championships (source: Santa Fe New Mexican newspaper):



In the stories they wrote for Girl Meets Boy, we aren't told what tribe either character belongs to. Most of the time, the omission of that detail would be a serious flaw. Tribal identity is one of the things I look for when evaluating a story. But, because Joe and Cyn are who they are, I didn't need that detail. I was with them right away. I want to spend time thinking about what that means...

For now, I'm just going to recommend that you get Girl Meets Boy (published in 2012 by Chronicle Books).


Saturday, January 26, 2013

Playing Indian - Vintage Valentine's Day Cards

Over at BuzzFeed, Leonora Epstein posted 15 Unbelievably Racist Valentine's Day Cards. I'm sharing two of them in this post. Before I do that, though, let's take a look at the subtitle for her post. She writes "This collection of V-Day cards circa 1900 to 1930 or so will make you wish Valentine's Day never existed." With that subtitle, she suggests that times are different. I think she's not paying attention to mascots like the ones for the Washington Redskins or the Cleveland Indians. She must not know about the Gwen Stefani video either.

Let's take a look at two of the cards:


Problems:
"Ugh ugh" - I'd love to know who it was that first put down "ugh ugh" as words or speech of Native people!

The headdress itself - One of the common stereotypical ways that a headdress is drawn.

The geometric trim around the heart - I guess this could be traced to textiles Native artists weave on looms. But don't artists from other groups also use looms in creating their woven items?

Wondering about his "give me" line. What do you think about that?

And or course, he is playing Indian. The artist didn't intend you to think the boy is actually Native. That's different (mostly) from the other Valentine's Day cards in the BuzzFeed article...


Here's the second one:

Problems:
"How" - Another utterance someone attributed as the way that Indians say hello. You remember it from Disney's Peter Pan?

The headdress - Another of the common ways that a headdress is drawn...

Given her skin tone, we can speculate that the artist meant her to actually be Native, but that's not likely. Like the boy in the card above, she's most likely playing Indian, too.



If you want to see more, check out the ones Adrienne K. has been posting each year at Native Appropriations. As far as I know, makers of the Valentine's day cards no longer use these stereotypes. I wish authors and illustrators of children's and young adult literature would stop, too!

Friday, January 25, 2013

Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity

In 1964, Jeff Brown introduced readers to a character named Flat Stanley:



Flat Stanley's name is actually Stanley Lambchop, but a bulletin board fell on him, turning him from a three-dimensional boy into a flat one. Much beloved, Flat Stanley evolved into a very popular project through which schoolchildren would make a Flat Stanley and mail it to friends and family in far off places.

A huge success, it also evolved into a series of early readers. Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity is one of those readers.



In it, Flat Stanley and his family go to Mount Rushmore. While there, they meet a tour guide's daughter. Her name is Calamity Jasper:



The interesting thing about Calamity Jasper is what she says about herself on page 48:



See? She is "part Lakota Sioux." In addition to knowing "useful things" about plants and hunting (can you say STEREOTYPE?), she knows how to send smoke signals (come on, say it again: STEREOTYPE). Course, because Stanley is FLAT, they use him as the blanket to send those smoke signals:



The stereotypes are bad, but there's more.

Look again at page 48 when Calamity tells us she's part Lakota Sioux. See the words "Gold Rush" in the previous sentence? Calamity Jasper is out looking for gold in a gold mine. A gold mine located in the Black Hills, and she is determined to get some of that gold for herself...

Let's consider what the Lakota Nation has on its website about the Black Hills:
In 1874 George Armstrong Custer led the U.S. Army Black Hills Expedition, which set out on July 2 from Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory, with orders to travel to the previously uncharted Black Hills of South Dakota. Its mission was to look for suitable locations for a fort, find a route to the southwest, and to investigate the potential for gold mining. His discovery of gold was made public and miners began migrating there illegally.

"Custer's florid descriptions of the mineral and timber resources of the Black Hills, and the land's suitability for grazing and cultivation ... received wide circulation, and had the effect of creating an intense popular demand for the 'opening' of the Hills for settlement. "Initially the U.S. military tried to turn away trespassing miners and settlers. Eventually President Grant, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of War, "decided that the military should make no further resistance to the occupation of the Black Hills by miners."These orders were to be enforced "quietly", and the President's decision was to remain "confidential."

As more settlers and gold miners invaded the Black Hills, the Government determined it had to acquire the land from the Sioux, and appointed a commission to negotiate the purchase. The negotiations failed, as the Sioux resisted giving up what they considered sacred land. The U.S. resorted to military force. They declared the Sioux Indians "hostile" for failing to obey an order to return from an off-reservation hunting expedition by a specific date, but in the dead of winter, overland travel was impossible.

The consequent military expedition to remove the Sioux from the Black Hills included an attack on a major encampment of several bands on the Little Bighorn River. Led by General Custer, the attack ended in the overwhelming victory of chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse over the 7th Cavalry Regiment, a conflict often called Custer's Last Stand.

In 1876 the U.S. Congress decided to open up the Black Hills to development and break up the Great Sioux Reservation. In 1877, it passed an act to make 7.7 million acres (31,000 km2) of the Black Hills available for sale to homesteaders and private interests. In 1889 Congress divided the remaining area of Great Sioux Reservation into five separate reservations and defined the boundaries of each in its Act of March 2, 1889, 25 Stat. 888.

With that history in mind, I think portraying a Lakota character as a gold miner is problematic.  

At the end of the book, there's a section called "What You Need to Know to Be a Black Hills Gold Miner." I'm guessing this information is what led the reviewer for School Library Journal to call the book "educational":
Native Americans have lived in the Black Hills for more than 9000 years. Some Lakota believe the Black Hills are the sacred center of the world.

The Black Hills Gold Rush began in 1874, when Colonel Custer led a thousand men into the western part of South Dakota to investigate reports that the area contained gold. That's the same Custer who later had his Last Stand against Sitting Bull at the Battle of Little Big Horn. 

One of the most famous cowgirls of the Black Hills was named Calamity Jane. She was a good friend of the famous lawman Wild Bill Hickock.

Gold was first discovered in the Black Hills just a few miles from where Mount Rushmore was later built.

Some would-be miners get tricked by "fools gold," which looks a lot like the real thing. If you want to tell the difference, try pressing your fingernail into the surface. If it leaves a small indent, you've found gold!

The heads on Mount Rushmore are as tall as a six-story building. If you matched them with bodies, the men with those heads would be three times as tall as the Statue of Liberty. 
Some of the individual items the reader needs to know to be a "Black Hills Gold Miner" are odd. Why would you tell the child that the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota people?! You've just read a story about mining for gold... on sacred land? I don't get the logic. How would the story itself be different if the author included the sacred nature of that land within the story? Maybe the author would abandon the project. Maybe the author didn't write these last pages!

Though the reviewer for School Library Journal called this book "educational and fun," I disagree. Stereotypes are not fun, and I don't think the book is educational, either. Flat Stanley's Worldwide Adventures: The Mount Rushmore Calamity was published in 2009 by Harper. The author is Sara Pennypacker, and the illustrations are by Macky Pamintuan.

Update: Friday, January 25, 6:00 PM

You may be interested in Monumental Myths - a video about monuments, especially the last segment, which is about Mount Rushmore.